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  #1  
Old 01-14-2016, 06:45 AM
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Unhappy Rest In Blessed Peace General Jacob-Farj-Rafael Jacob

I regret to post that Lt.Gen. JFR Jacob has passed away. I have written many times about my admiration for Gen.Jacob and his numerous contributions for India.

Lt.Gen. Jacob was a Jewish officer who was the architect of India's '71 war victory against Pakistan and the consequent birth of Bangladesh. At that time, he was a Maj. Gen. and the COS, Eastern Command . He captured Dhaka and successfully sought a surrender from the martial administrator of then East Pakistan, Gen. Niazi, which led to the surrender of 90 000 Pakistani troops.

Though '71 was the most famous of his achievements, nevertheless he also served commendably in both WW2 as well as , '62 Sino-Indian War and '65 Indo-Pak war. Post-retirement, he is well remembered for his gubernatorial stints in both Goa as well as my state of Punjab, being remembered for his efficiency, discipline and initiative.

Gen. Jacob was a proud Jew as well as an Indian. Post military life, he served as the Security Advisor of BJP, which is the current party in power and a friend of Israel. He was ever an advocate of improved Indo-Israeli relations and his home was a mecca for various Indian and Jewish academics, defence professionals etc. Certainly, the strong military procurement relation between Israel and India has Gen. Jacob's efforts behind it.

R. I. P., General. We will never see your likes again.
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Old 01-14-2016, 06:51 AM
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Default Remembering Lt Gen JFR Jacob

http://blogs.timesofindia.indiatimes...gen-jfr-jacob/

Quote:
“I will tell you what Bill Slim had told me once: punctuality is the hallmark of an officer”—these were the first words of Lieutenant General Jack Farj Rafael Jacob (Retd) to me one March morning in 2012. I was 12 minutes late for a meeting with him at his Som Vihar residence and the general was clearly not amused.

Libyan militia had destroyed war graves of British and Commonwealth troops, including Indians, at Benghazi and I had reached out to General Jacob for a reaction.


(The notice on the wall of Jacob’s home)

“Before you ask me anything, I want you to take a look at that thing on the wall,” Jacob directed my attention to a notice dated May 1, 1941. It read, “Officers and other ranks, whether on duty or on leave in this station, are forbidden to discuss military subjects in public. Severe disciplinary action will be taken against any officer or other rank who disobeys this order.” I thought the meeting was going badly.
Jacob then calmed my nerves saying, “Of course, I am not serious. That was in the Second World War!” He explained that it was handed to him when he had joined duty as an Emergency Officer. “I joined the Indian Army because I wanted to fight the Nazis for what they did to the Jews. I’m a Jew myself,” Jacob said. He was later commissioned into the Royal Indian Artillery.
And so we started talking about the Second World War and his role in it, his association with Glubb Pasha, the Bangladesh War, Niazi’s surrender, the Hamoodur Rahman Commission, Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, etc etc over many cups of Darjeeling tea. The general had surrounded Dhaka with 3,000 troops and forced General A A K Niazi of Pakistan Army to surrender unconditionally—a rare feat that got him immortal fame.


(General Niazi and General Jacob (Right) after the surrender)

Yet Jacob seemed particularly glad to talk about the Second World War. “My unit took on the might of Rommel’s Afrika Korps in North Africa. We faced the Panzer divisions without any tank support and were cut up quite badly. We had to regroup,” the general recounted with a sense of pride and loss, both at the same time. He missed most of the action in North Africa, though, as he lost contact with his unit. But he saw action in Burma as part of Field Marshal Viscount William ‘Bill’ Slim’s Fourteenth Army.
As part of this multinational force, 65% of which was Indian, Jacob had many close shaves. “At Ramree Island, we fought the Japanese in crocodile-infested waters. Those bloody crocs! We used to carry sticks to hit them if they came close. Then in Burma, I was wounded in a strafing attack by Japanese fighters. One of the jemadars (a VCO) who was offering namaz was shot in his bottom. Those were terrible times,” Jacob had recalled.

But he was also very critical of our role as journalists in disseminating information about the war. “Young Sharma, I wonder why your media always harps on the Bangladesh War to glorify the Indian Army. Our army achieved far greater glory in WWII than anywhere else. Why not talk about that?

Jacob was well-liked by the forces, but his critical opinion about the role of Field Marshal Manekshaw and Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora in the Bangladesh War earned him some detractors. However, he wasn’t too bothered about that. “I have nothing to win or lose now. I have donated everything I had to charity. I only hope someone will read the Kaddish for me when I am dead,” he had said.
As the news broke this morning that General Jacob was no more, the only thing I could think of was if someone had read the Kaddish for him. An eventful chapter in this country’s history has now closed.
DISCLAIMER : Views expressed above are the author's own.
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Old 01-14-2016, 06:56 AM
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Default Lt Gen JFR Jacob: The man who masterminded Pakistan's surrender in 1971

http://www.rediff.com/news/special/d...r/20151213.htm

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Lieutenant General Jacob Farj Rafael Jacob (retired) -- Jake to his friends -- passed into the ages on Wednesday, January 13, 2016.

In his honour, we re-publish this fascinating December 2006 special story where the man who masterminded the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971 walked down memory lane in an exclusive chat with then Deputy Managing Editor Ramananda Sengupta.


The crackdown (by West Pakistan on East Pakistan) took place from March 3rd to the 26th. The Indian government was very concerned over the large number of refugees that kept coming in.

In the beginning of April, General (S H F J) Manekshaw (below, left), the army chief, called up to say that the government required the army to move into East Pakistan immediately. I told him that was not possible because we had mountain divisions and no bridges, and there were a large number of rivers between us and Dhaka, very wide and unbridged.

The monsoon was about to break, our divisions were not trained in riverine warfare, we had no transport (mountains divisions have very little) and it was not possible for us to move in.

So he said he would come back to me. When he came back the next day, he said they were accusing him and the army of being cowards. So I told him, "You tell them that it's not you, it's the Eastern Command that's not moving."

"When the bloody hell can you move by?" he asked.

"If you give me the bridges and other stores required, and the time for training, not before 15th of November," I replied.

Why?

I said because by the 15th of November the ground would have dried up, and we should be able to move. So that was that. After that Manekshaw went to Mrs Gandhi and the Cabinet and briefed them.

General Sam ManekshawSo we knew a war was coming, and I made a plan to capture East Pakistan. I knew that the Pakistanis would defend the towns, so the main strategy of that plan was that Dhaka was to be our final and principal objective, since it was the geopolitical and geostrategic heart of then East Pakistan.

In each of the other sectors, for instance in the Jessore sector, we selected objectives like communications centres.

So we decided to bypass the towns and use subsidiary tracks and head straight for Dhaka. We never wanted to capture any town, because capturing a town takes a long time. I knew the war would be short, I knew the UN was bound to intervene, so we couldn't spend time capturing towns. You see how much the time Americans took to capture the town of Fallujah in Iraq?

So the strategy was, draw them to border, use subsidiary tracks to bypass the towns and defences, and head for Dhaka from all directions.

Meanwhile, the refugees from East Pakistan were coming in. Tajuddin (the Awami League leader and later Bangladesh's prime minister in exile) and others were set up in Calcutta. I helped them with the initial draft of their declaration of Independence, by giving them a rough draft which they took around and then then suitably enlarged.

So the government orders us to help the Mukti Bahini, camps were set up in the border areas, and they were trained and armed by various agencies.

The Mukti Bahini, and later the East Bengal batallions, had a major role to play in the liberation of Bangladesh. They created the environment in which the Pakistani army was completely demoralised and they couldn't move from one place to another without being attacked. Their contribution was enormous. They attacked the communications and reduced the morale of the Pakistani army, making it much easier for us.

The author in 1971(General Jacob, left) As for the war plans, I had worked out a strategy when I was a brigade commander and also as GOC (General Officer Commanding) 12th division. I produced a desert warfare book in 1969 in which I laid down these principles. This was later incorporated in the army training manual.

The Indian Army was so far used to moving on metalled roads with supplies following it. I said "Nonsense! You move on subsidiary tracks and open a supply route later. Go self contained, bypass. The main roads can be opened later, so you don't have to depend on it for some time."

The main problem was logistics, which was critical in winning that war. So in May 1971, even before we received any orders from anyone, we started building up the logistics in Tripura for one corps, throughout the monsoons, before any orders arrived from Army HQ.

Similarly in Tura and other places, we got the Borders Roads Organisation to make the roads, made hospitals airfields, etc. In May I sent a plan to Army HQ giving Dhaka as a principal objective and allocation of troops. HQ sat on it for some time, and it was only in August that General Manekshaw and his Director of Military Operations K K Singh turned up and gave us the following plans.

The orders, which were issued in writing and never changed, said that we would capture the entry ports of Khulna and Chittagong, and our thrust weighted accordingly. That's all.

I argued that we had to take Dhaka, and I was told no, if we took Khulna and Chittagong the war would be over. I asked how, since Khulna was nothing but a minor river port 30 miles from our border. Chittagong was peripheral. So these arguments went on for some time, and the only change that Manekshaw made was that he removed the word weight.

So the orders we went to war with was to capture Khulna and Chittagong. Dhaka was not mentioned anywhere.

We did not take Khulna, and we did not capture Chittagong, yet we won the war.

I had to find troops for Dhaka. There was 6 Mountain Division which was kept in the north for Bhutan. So I begged for troops from that division, but was told that I was not going to get them, because the Chinese were likely to attack. Manekshaw refused to give me any troops from the north to take Dhaka.

I was given a para batallion group. I planned to drop it at Tangail and I signed the orders for that in October. We laid down in that the drop would take place on D +7, and the link up would be in 24 hours. It occurred exactly as we had planned.

We sent Captain P K Ghosh of 50 Para Brigade in November to Tangail with 'Tiger' Siddiqi, a former Pakistani armyman, to lay out the dropping zone. But I had to find troops. The two divisions that were in Mizoram and Nagaland had no artillery. Therefore I moved all the artillery from the Chinese border to make these divisions up. I also moved down three brigades for the Dhaka thrust. Things were moving.

The Mukti Bahini operations finished on the 30th of November. So I told the army commander, Lieutenant General J S Aurora below left), that this is the plan for Dhaka, and he said he would inform Manekshaw. I said don't inform him, because Manekshaw has said the Chinese are likely to attack, and he doesn't know about this move. And also he does not think Dhaka is important.

The new DMO (Director of Military Operations), Inder Gill, and I got along well, and he helped me in this. But nothing was conveyed to Manekshaw about this until November 30, when Aurora sent him a signal saying that I had moved these brigades down to capture Dhaka.

The answer came in two hours and read like this: "Who told you to move these brigades? You will move them back at once!"

So an agitated Aurora came in asking what do we do, and I told him and that I would take care of it. When I called up Gill, he said: "Why the hell did you have to send that stupid signal? Manekshaw is shouting at me for not telling him about it."

General Jagjit Singh AuroraSo I said I hadn't sent that message, and that there's no way I would send those brigades back. We all know the war is going to start, and we all know that if I send them I will never get them back in time.

"Jake," he said, "don't send them back, but please do not commit them into Bangladesh without Army HQ sanction, because the chief is adamant."

"Inder," I replied. "I give you my word."

I never knew that once the war started, Manekshaw would would not allow us to move those brigades into Bangladesh until December 8.

On December 3, Manekshaw rang me up in the evening saying they have bombed our airfields in the west, and I said I take it the war has started. He said yes, you go ahead. Mrs Gandhi, he said, was in Calcutta, so please inform her, and I said okay.

I then told Aurora that the war has started, I have to prepare the orders, so please you go and inform her at Raj Bhavan. So I tied up the air support and issued the orders.

The war had begun.

Though no war goes completely according to plan, this one went off reasonably well, and on December 13, we were outside Dhaka.

The advance from the north went off well, and though the move of the two brigades was delayed the paradrop took place as planned. By December 13, we had about 3,000 troops outside Dhaka.

Meanwhile the American fleet was moving into the Straits of Malacca. Some in Delhi were panicking. The radio signals we were intercepting from Islamabad to the Pakistani forces in the east said "Fight on, you are getting help from yellow (China) from the north, and white (America) from the south."

Niazi believed this.

On December 13, there was an American resolution at the United Nations, which was vetoed by the Soviet Union. The Soviets said no more vetos. (Then Chief of the Army Staff S H F J) Manekshaw reacted and sent us an order to capture "all the towns in Bangladesh except Dacca." Listing every single one that we had bypassed.

We were outside Dhaka, still no mention was made to capture Dhaka!

Not only that, he copied the order down to the three corps. So we rang the corps to tell them to ignore these orders.

(Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh) Aurora (then General Officer Commanding Eastern Command) came agitated into my room, showing me the signal and saying this was was all my fault because he wanted to capture the towns, and I did not support this view. Further, I had opposed operations to capture Sylhet, Rangpur and Dinajpur and other towns in East Pakistan.

So I got hold of Niazi on the wireless that night and explained that our forces outside Dhaka were very strong, a Mukti Bahini uprising was imminent, ethnic minorities would be protected and that they ( the Pakistan army) would be treated with dignity if they surrendered.

On December 14, I got an intercept that there was a meeting at the Government House in Dhaka. There were two government houses in Dhaka, so we took an educated guess, and fortunately it was the correct one. The Indian Air Force bombed it within two hours. The governor of East Pakistan resigned.

About 4 pm that afternoon, Niazi and Major General Farman Ali went to see Spivack, the American consul general, with the following proposals:

Ceasefire under the United Nations
Withdrawal under UN
Handover of the government to the UN, and
No war crimes trials and other stipulations
I got to know about it through one of the embassies. So I informed Manekshaw, who spoke to the American ambassador in India, who didn't know anything about it. That same day, the American embassy in Islamabad sent it to New York, and it was given on December 15 to (then Pakistan foreign minister) Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. He refused to accept it. The Americans then gave it to us.

On December 15, the ceasefire was ordered.

A resolution by Poland, part of the Soviet bloc, was introduced at the UN on December 15 evening in New York, which was the morning of December 16 our time. Bhutto tore it up in rage, because it did not condemn India as an aggressor.

On the morning of December 16, Manekshaw phoned me and said: "Go and get a surrender."

"On what terms?" I asked. "I have already send you a draft surrender document. Do I negotiate on that?"

"You know what to do, just go!" he replied.

Then I made a mistake. I told him that when I was talking to Niazi, he had invited me for lunch, and I forgot about it. On the staircase, I met Mrs Aurora, and she told she was going to Dhaka with her husband. "My place is beside my husband," she said.

I was changing helicopters at Jessore to get to Dhaka, when a man came running to me with a signal from Army HQ. I opened it, thinking good, now I have some orders.

I was unarmed, and carrying the document which I had typed and sent to Delhi. A staff officer was with me, that's all. I opened the letter, and it said: "The government of India has approved of General Jacob having lunch with Niazi." Who wanted their permission?

Anyway, I landed at Dhaka still carrying this paper which I had sent to Delhi. On my arrival, I was met by the UN representatives who said we are coming with you to arrange the withdrawal of the Pakistani army and the takeover of the government.

I said thank you very much, I don't need your help.

Fighting was going all around Dhaka between the Pakistani troops and the Mukti Bahini. A Pakistani brigadier met me at the airfield to guide me to Niazi.

En route, We were stopped by a unit of the Mukti Bahini, who refused to let us proceed. We are going to attack Niazi's headuarters, they said. "He is surrendering, please let me go," I said. The Time magazine reporter who was there said I threatened to shoot them. I said no such thing. I didn't have a weapon to shoot them with!

A long argument took place with the Mukti Bahini, until I said, "Look, your new government is coming in tomorrow, and Niazi wants to surrender, for God's sake let us go!" Finally they let us go. I arrived at Niazi's headquarters, where I had the draft surrender document read out to him.

This is an unconditional surrender, he said. "You have only come here to discuss the ceasefire and the withdrawal of the Pakistani army."

"General," I replied, "this is not unconditional, I have worked on this for some time. I had put in it that we would protect ethnic minorities, that we would ensure the safety of them and their families, that they would be treated with dignity as officers and men according to the Geneva Convention. So it is not unconditional. Where would you find all these conditions laid down?"

But he said no.

I had thought he had 25,000 troops in Dhaka. He told me had 30,000.

I listened to the arguments for some time. His aides like Farman Ali were advising him not to surrender.

Finally, I told him, "Look general, you surrender, I will ensure your safety, the safety of your families, ethnic minorities, everyone. You will be treated with respect. If you don't I am afraid I can take no responsibility for what happens to you or your families. What is more, we will have no other option but to order the immediate resumption of hostilities. I give you 30 minutes."

I walked out.

Aurora was supposed to land soon to sign the instrument of surrender. I fervently hoped he was bringing what we had sent Manekshaw. I was alone in a very hostile environment.

The BBC and others were there, and they were all asking me questions. I didn't know what to say.

The Hamidur Rehman report says 'there was General Jacob, calmly puffing his pipe pacing up and down.'

And I was thinking, suppose he doesn't surrender, what do I do? He has 30,000 troops, we have 3,000, he can fight for three weeks at least!

The Hamidur Rehman report also says when they asked him why did you surrender, Niazi told them 'General Jacob blackmailed me! He threatened to hand us over to the Bahini, and that they would bayonet us.'

All rubbish. I did put pressure on him, but I didn't say I would hand him over to the Mukti Bahini for them to massacre. I said I would not be responsible. I never said I would hand them over. That's a lie. In fact, in the Hamidur Rehman report, one of the officers who was present said Jacob never used the word bayonet.

Anyway, I was wondering what was going to happen as I walked back after half an hour. The paper I gave him was lying on the table.

"General, do you accept this paper?" I asked.

He kept quiet, he didn't answer. I asked him three times.

So I picked it up, and held it high, and said, "I take it that it is accepted."

There were tears were in his eyes. There were glares from the other Pakistani generals and admirals.

I had no advice, no orders, other than to get a surrender. I didn't know what was going to be signed.

What came to be signed had to be re-signed in Calcutta two weeks later. The signed document was wrong.

I will surrender in my office, Niazi said.

I said no, I have already given instructions that you will surrender at the racecourse, in front of the people of Dhaka.

"I won't," he said.

"You will," I said. "You will also provide a guard of honour."

I made my own modalities for the surrender.

This surrender is unique, the only public surrender in history where a ceasefire was converted into surrender and signed in four hours. Niazi had the capacity to fight on for two to three weeks, and the UN was in session.

He was taken to task by the Hamidur Rehman report, which said not only had he agreed to surrender but he had shamefully agreed to a public surrender and guard of honour when he could have fought on for some weeks, enabling the UN to intervene.

Then there was that lunch which Gavin Young (of the Independent, London, who won the IPC's International Reporter of the Year Award for his coverage from Dacca of the 1971 War) described as the Surrender Lunch, with all the silverware laid out.

Khara (my staff officer) and I stood aside, we didn't touch anything, not even a drop of water.

After that, while we were going to the airport in Niazi's car, the Mukti Bahini stopped the car and jumped on it. Fortunately my staff officer Khara was a Sikh, he put his turbaned head out, and shouted at them.

Near the airport, I saw a few of our troops trickling in. I saw two para boys in a jeep and I took them with me. When I got to the airport, Tiger Siddiqi turned up with a truckload of Mukti Bahini. I don't know why, but I felt he wanted to shoot Niazi.

If Niazi was killed at the airport, there would be no surrender.


I told the two para boys to shield Niazi, walked up to Siddiqi -- I told the two para boys to point their rifles at him -- and ordered him off the airfield.

Then Aurora and his entourage, including his wife, landed. I was supposed to travel with Niazi and Aurora, but I was told to make way for Mrs Aurora. She was more important. Since everyone else had gone, and this was the last car, I hitched a ride in a truck.

After the signing, the crowd was wanting to lynch Niazi. We had very few troops there. So we had put a cordon around Niazi, put him in an army jeep which whisked him away.

We lost 1,400 men; 4,000 were wounded. The credit for our victory should go to the officers and men who fought gallantly against stiff resistance by the Pakistanis.

Due credit must go to Indira Gandhi who displayed courage and determination throughout the crisis. She stood up to (US President Richard M) Nixon and the UN, and led the country to its greatest victory.

We took 93,000 prisoners. The rifle and bayonet at the Amar Jawan memorial in New Delhi belong to an unknown soldier who gave his life in the Jessore sector.

Let us not forget their sacrifice
.
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Old 01-14-2016, 07:02 AM
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Default Who was Lt Gen JFR Jacob? Here's all you need to know :

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/j.../1/569401.html

1971 Indo-Pakistan war hero Lt Gen JFR Jacob passed away today morning at the age of 93. Here's all you need to know about him.

Retired Indian Army Lieutenant General JFR Jacob passed away on Wednesday morning at the age of 93. He is best remembered for his role in bringing victory to India in the 1971 Indo-Pakistan War, and the liberation of Bangladesh.
Here's all you need to know about this hero:

Who was JFR Jacob?

Born in Kolkata (then Calcutta) in 1923, Jack Farj Rafael Jacob grew up in a conservative Baghdadi Jews household under the British rule. His family had originally come from Iraq and settled in Bengal in the mid-18th century.
Jacob did his schooling from Victoria School in Kurseong, West Bengal. Living in the boarding school, he visited home only during school holidays as a boy.
As a teenager, Jacob was strongly influenced by wartime poetry. In his interview to The Times of Israel, he said that his family had taken in a family of Jewish refugees from Hitler's Europe.
Unmarried and childless, Jacob wrote a moving open letter to the youth of Delhi at 93, addressing them as his "sons and daughters".



His role in World War II
Jacob had joined the British army at the age of 18 "to fight the Nazis". Although initially his father disapproved of his enlisting, he later on accepted the decision.
After graduating from Officer's Training School Mhow in 1942, Jacob fought in World War II in northern Iraq, North Africa, Burma (now Myanmar), Sumatra, etc.
When the war was over, he went on to graduate from artillery schools in England and the United States, where he got special training in advanced artillery and missiles.
His role in the Indian Army
Jacob joined the Indian Army after the Independence, and went on to serve for 37 years in different ranks.
"The only place I encountered anti-Semitism was from the British in their army. Among Indians it does not exist," he said in his interview to The Times of Israel.
After being promoted to Brigadier in 1963, he fought in the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War. Later on, Jacob was promoted to Major General in 1967.
How Jacob helped win the 1971 Indo-Pakistan War?
Then Major General Jacob served as the Chief of Staff of the Indian Army's Eastern Command during the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war.
When the war was at its peak, then-Chief of the Army Staff SHFJ "Sam" Manekshaw wanted to invade into East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and capture the towns of Chittagong and Khulna. Some Indian Army officers, however, were unsure about this move.
Jacob then came up with the "war of movement" plan, which was to capture all of East Pakistan including Dhaka by avoiding the towns in between and using secondary routes to reach the capital city.
This plan, carried in just 15 days, made the Indian Army's incursion of Dhaka successful.



On December 16, 1971, Jacob was sent to get a surrender from Pakistani Army commander, Lt. General A. A. K. Niazi.
In one of his interviews, he narrated how he reached Dhaka unarmed and accompanied by only one staff officer, carrying just the draft surrender document.
Handing the document to General Niazi, which asked for Pakistan Army's unconditional surrender, Jacob gave him 30 minutes to decide. Niazi accepted the conditions.

After the signing of the document that gave birth to a new nation, Jacob reminisces in the interview having "hitched a ride in a truck" on his way back.
Pakistan's National Defence College in a study had written that the credit of the victory "really goes to General Jacob's meticulous preparations in the Indian eastern command and to the implementation by his Corps commanders".


After his retirement from the Army
Jacob retired from the military in 1978 and went on to be appointed as the governor of Goa, and then as the governor of Punjab.
He has also penned books on his experience in the Army, namely Surrender at Dacca: Birth of a Nation and An Odyssey in War and Peace: An Autobiography Lt Gen. J.F.R. Jacob.
During the latter part of his life, Jacob was settled in New Delhi.


Jacob with PM Narendra Modi. Photo: Narendra Modi/ Twitter
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Old 01-14-2016, 07:05 AM
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Default 'Born In India, Will Die In India,' 1971 War Hero JFR Jacob Had Said

http://www.ndtv.com/people/born-in-i...d-said-1265402
Quote:
NEW DELHI: One of the architects of the 1971 war which resulted in creation of Bangladesh, Lt General Jacob-Farj-Rafael or JFR Jacob, then the Chief of Staff of the Eastern Command, played a pivotal role in defining the Indian Army's strategy during the course of operations.

Recipient of several honours from the Indian and the Bangladeshi governments, the Lt General died on Wednesday. He was 92.

In the 1971 war, he designed a "war of movement" plan where the Indian Army bypassed intermediary towns which had been fortified by the Pakistan Army. His goal was to neutralise Pakistan's command and control infrastructure and use secondary routes to enter Dhaka.

"I am a Calcutta boy - born and brought up in Calcutta. I'm a Bengali at heart. I was very sympathetic to the suffering of the Bangladeshi population in the hands of the Pakistani army," he had said in an episode of NDTV's Walk The Talk in 2012.

Lt General Jacob was also responsible for getting the Pakistani Commander Lt General AAK Niazi to sign the surrender document reportedly by blackmailing him. Lt General Jacob is thought to have told Lt General Niazi that he would let the Mukti Bahini, the force of Bengali freedom fighters, loose on Pakistani nationals in Dhaka if he didn't sign.

While Lt General Jacob frequently claimed he was the chief architect of the liberation of East Pakistan there were other outstanding generals who played a pivotal role. This included the legendary Army Chief General Sam Manekshaw and the Eastern Army Commander Lt General JS Aurora under whose leadership he served.

In the interview, the former governor of Punjab had said, "Sam was a great character. He did a lot for the Army, restored its prestige."

Before 1971, Lt General Jacob had fought in the Second World War. His unit was deployed on the Burma front before becoming a part of the Army of independent India. He retired from the Army in 1978 after 37 years of service. A strong supporter of India-Israel ties, the General joined the BJP in the 1990s and served as a security advisor to the party.

"I joined the Army in 1941. I served five years in the Middle East, Burma and Sumatra. I learnt my soldiering in World War II. The experience stood me in good stead later," he had said, adding that even though he was from the minority Jewish community he never faced any discrimination.

"I've never experienced any anti-Semitism in India, none whatsoever. When everyone asked me why I did not go to Israel told them I was born in India, India gave me everything, I will die in India," Lt General Jacob had said.
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Old 01-14-2016, 07:10 AM
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PM Narendra Modi :

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Lt Gen JFR Jacob & I interacted often. Had a memorable interaction when he presented his autobiography to me.

pic.twitter.com/h32apAvBrm

— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) January 13, 2016
Israeli Ambassador in India Daniel Carmon :

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Very sad news: General(Retd)JFRJacob, Indian War Hero,Proud Jew,Friend of Israel,has passed https://t.co/gBZWze6SxS pic.twitter.com/kz994hIFoX

— Daniel Carmon (@danielocarmon) January 13, 2016
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Old 01-14-2016, 07:13 AM
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Default General who put people first

http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/cha...st/183342.html

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Nitin Jain & Ramkrishan Upadhyay
Tribune News Service
Chandigarh, January 13
A pall of gloom descended on the city as the news of Lt Gen (retd) JFR Jacob’s death reached here on Wednesday morning. One of the last of the Indian Army veterans to have seen action in World War II and who played a stellar role in the 1971 war that led to the creation of Bangladesh, Jacob was the 29th Governor of Punjab and also served as the Administrator of Chandigarh from November 27, 1999 to May 8, 2003.
Jacob made immense contribution to the development of the City Beautiful. Having keen interest in art and archives, the former UT Administrator had played a vital role in giving the city museum and art gallery a facelift, besides opening almost two dozen schools for slum children.
The Chandigarh Football Academy was also the brainchild of Jacob, who established it in 2000, with an aim to provide world-class training to the children between the age of 9 and 11.
Having a farsighted vision, he conceptualised Rajiv Gandhi IT Park to provide jobs to the young people of the city.
“Governor saheb used to celebrate Diwali with blind children from the Institute for Blind and share the festivities on all other occasions with us,” recalled Rampal, who had been serving as a helper at the Punjab Raj Bhawan since 1995.
A catering superviser at Punjab Raj Bhawan, Rajinder Kanojia, remembers how Lt Gen Jacob used to free staffers early in the day on festivals so that they could celebrate with their families. He would tell them to cook his dinner early and leave it in the kitchen, from where he would take it on his own.
“Jacob’s remarkable legacy will always be remembered as the state’s most effective and beloved (ex) Governor and Administrator,” says a city resident, Suresh Kumar.
Lt Gen NS Brar (retd), who was Captain when Jacob was 16 Corps Commander at Nagrota, termed Jacob as a “very simple person having all the qualities of great military leader who never feared to speak the truth”.
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Old 01-14-2016, 07:54 AM
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Default ‘JFR’ Jacob, India’s highest-ranking Jewish military officer, dies at 92

http://www.jta.org/2016/01/13/news-o...cer-dies-at-92

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Lt. Gen. Jacob-Farj-Rafael “JFR” Jacob, an Indian Jew who had a storied career in India’s military, has died at 92. (Some reports said he was 93.)

Jacob died Wednesday in New Delhi following a short illness, according to several Indian media outlets.

The American Jewish Committee, which in 2013 awarded Jacob with its Global Leadership Award, said in a statement Wednesday that the general was “for decades the most prominent member of his country’s Jewish community” and was its highest-ranking Jewish military officer.


Among his countrymen, Jacob was best known for negotiating the 1971 surrender of more than 90,000 Pakistani soldiers in Bangladesh’s struggle for independence.

According to India’s The Tribune, Jacob’s body was held in state at Brar Square in Delhi Cantonment and then handed over to “Delhi’s small Jewish community at the Judah Hyam Synagogue in central Delhi for his final rites.”

The chief general of India’s army, Dalbir Singh Suhag, said Jacob was a “pillar of military leadership and personified the best qualities of a soldier and a statesman,” according to the Tribune.


Jacob served as governor of Punjab and administrator of Chandigarh between November 1999 and May 2003, according to the Tribune, which said he was known “for dropping in unannounced in public offices.”

Israeli Ambassador Daniel Carmon told the Tribune that Jacob was a staunch supporter of India-Israel relations and “shall forever be remembered as a human bridge between our peoples.”

Born in Calcutta to religious Jewish parents, Jacob was inspired by the Holocaust to enlist in the British Indian Army in 1942. He served on various fronts during World War II, including in Burma and Sumatra.

Interviewed in 2012 by OpenTheMagazine, Jacob said his family originally came from Iraq, settling in India in the mid-18th century.

“I have never been a very religious man,” he told the magazine. “I believe in God, I can say a few Jewish prayers, but that’s it. When we were young, our parents hired tutors to teach us Hebrew. Unlike my brothers, I was not bothered to learn. I regret that now.”

The article noted that he had been to Israel many times “and engaged in some behind-the-scenes diplomacy to foster Indo-Israeli relations,” developing friendships with numerous Israeli military and political leaders, including former President Shimon Peres.

Asked by OpenTheMagazine if he was ever tempted to move to Israel and offer the country his military expertise, he said, “Israel has outstanding military leaders of their own, they do not need me. Besides, India has always been very good to us. I am proud to be a Jew, but am Indian through and through. I was born in India and served her my whole life. This is where I want to die.

Jason Isaacson, AJC associate executive director for policy, in a statement provided by the AJC, said: “Jack Jacob’s contributions to peace and security in South Asia, as well as to the burgeoning and mutually beneficial relationship between India and Israel, are incalculable and enduring. A warrior, a man of peace, a patriot, a man of letters, and a committed Jew, he was a giant – and he will be missed.”

Jacob, who never married, retired from the military in 1978.
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Default Israel condoles death of Lt. Gen. J.F.R. Jacob (retd)

http://www.business-standard.com/art...1300707_1.html

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Israel on Wednesday condoled the death of Lt. Gen. J.F.R. Jacob (retd), the man who negotiated the surrender of Pakistani troops in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.

"I would like to pay tribute to a man who we lost this morning, Gen. Jacob, an Indian war hero, a proud Jew, friend of Israel, a man who during his remarkable career did so much for India, for the liberty of India, for the democracy of India," Israel's Ambassador to India Daniel Carmon said at a media briefing here ahead of External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj's visit to that country next week.

"He has been for many years a living bridge between the people of India and the people of Israel. We are sorry for this loss, We will bid adieu to him tomorrow," he added.


Jacob died here on Wednesday after prolonged illness
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Old 01-14-2016, 08:05 AM
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Default General JFR Jacob: A war hero & the last vestige of Indian Jewish community

http://www.ibnlive.com/news/india/ge...s-1189233.html

General JFR Jacob: A war hero & the last vestige of Indian Jewish community led life on his terms

Quote:
New Delhi: Lieutenant General Jacob Farj Rafael Jacob or just General JFR Jacob who breathed his last at the age of 93 on Wednesday was a very colourful character. Known as the hero of the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war, General Jacob later went on serve as a Governor for many years. A Bagdhadi Jew, born in Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1923, Jacob was known for his plain speaking. His critics used to call him a boastful character. His admirers held him in high esteem. It was General Jacob.
His ancestors migrated to Calcutta in the middle of 18th century and made India their new home. He was born in a deeply religious Jewish family. Even in Israel, he was known as a Jewish war hero. General Jacob was the last vestige of a dying Jewish community in India. Currently the total population of the Jews is less than 5000 in India.

General Jacob was a voracious reader, prolific writer and a public speaker. He was a part of several institutions and organisations. His home in New Delhi was a pilgrimage site for Jewish community members from all over the World. General Jacob was very proud of his participation in the 1971 Bangladesh liberation war which created an independent nation of Bangladesh. During the war he was Chief of Staff, Eastern Command working directly under Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora or JS Aurora. Jacob was appointed as Chief of Staff, Eastern Command by the then General Sam Manekshaw who later became a Field Marshal. Under the Command of General Aurora, the three Corps of the Indian Army entered Dhaka and forced Pakistani Army to surrender on December 16, 1971. Over 90,000 Pakistani soldiers surrendered to India in that historic war declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. His claims were contested by some others who served with him in the Army. He was both admired and criticised in equal measures. General Jacob, who had serious differences with the Congress party joined the BJP in mid 1990s. After that he wrote a book titled “Surrender at Dacca : Birth of a Nation”.
Speaking to Rediff.Com a few years ago Jacob had said “though no war goes completely according to plan, this one went off reasonably well, and on December 13, we were outside Dhaka.
The advance from the north went off well, and though the move of the two brigades was delayed the paradrop took place as planned. By December 13, we had about 3,000 troops outside Dhaka.
Meanwhile the American fleet was moving into the Straits of Malacca. Some in Delhi were panicking. The radio signals we were intercepting from Islamabad to the Pakistani forces in the east said "Fight on, you are getting help from yellow (China) from the north, and white (America) from the south."
According to that interview to Rediff, On December 13, there was an American resolution at the United Nations, which was vetoed by the Soviet Union. The Soviets said no more vetos. (Then Chief of the Army Staff S H F J) Manekshaw reacted and sent us an order to capture "all the towns in Bangladesh except Dacca." Listing every single one that we had bypassed.
Talking about that an exited Jacob had said “Not only that, he copied the order down to the three corps. So we rang the corps to tell them to ignore these orders.
(Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh) Aurora (then General Officer Commanding Eastern Command) came agitated into my room, showing me the signal and saying this was was all my fault because he wanted to capture the towns, and I did not support this view. Further, I had opposed operations to capture Sylhet, Rangpur and Dinajpur and other towns in East Pakistan. So I got hold of Niazi on the wireless that night and explained that our forces outside Dhaka were very strong, a Mukti Bahini uprising was imminent, ethnic minorities would be protected and that they ( the Pakistan army) would be treated with dignity if they surrendered.
On December 14, I got an intercept that there was a meeting at the Government House in Dhaka. There were two government houses in Dhaka, so we took an educated guess, and fortunately it was the correct one. The Indian Air Force bombed it within two hours. The governor of East Pakistan resigned. About 4 pm that afternoon, Niazi and Major General Farman Ali went to see Spivack, the American consul general, with the following proposals:
I got to know about it through one of the embassies. So I informed Manekshaw, who spoke to the American ambassador in India, who didn't know anything about it. That same day, the American embassy in Islamabad sent it to New York, and it was given on December 15 to (then Pakistan foreign minister) Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. He refused to accept it. The Americans then gave it to us. On December 15, the ceasefire was ordered. A resolution by Poland, part of the Soviet bloc, was introduced at the UN on December 15 evening in New York, which was the morning of December 16 our time. Bhutto tore it up in rage, because it did not condemn India as an aggressor. On the morning of December 16, Manekshaw phoned me and said: "Go and get a surrender."
"On what terms?" I asked. "I have already send you a draft surrender document. Do I negotiate on that?"
"You know what to do, just go!" he replied.
A Pakistani brigadier met me at the airfield to guide me to Niazi. A long argument took place with the Mukti Bahini, until I said, "Look, your new government is coming in tomorrow, and Niazi wants to surrender, for God's sake let us go!" Finally they let us go. I arrived at Niazi's headquarters, where I had the draft surrender document read out to him.
This is an unconditional surrender, he said. "You have only come here to discuss the ceasefire and the withdrawal of the Pakistani army."
"General," I replied, "this is not unconditional, I have worked on this for some time. I had put in it that we would protect ethnic minorities, that we would ensure the safety of them and their families, that they would be treated with dignity as officers and men according to the Geneva Convention. So it is not unconditional. Where would you find all these conditions laid down?"
But he said no.
I had thought he had 25,000 troops in Dhaka. He told me had 30,000.
I listened to the arguments for some time. His aides like Farman Ali were advising him not to surrender.
Finally, I told him, "Look general, you surrender, I will ensure your safety, the safety of your families, ethnic minorities, everyone. You will be treated with respect. If you don't I am afraid I can take no responsibility for what happens to you or your families. What is more, we will have no other option but to order the immediate resumption of hostilities. I give you 30 minutes."
I walked out. I made my own modalities for the surrender.
This surrender is unique, the only public surrender in history where a ceasefire was converted into surrender and signed in four hours. Niazi had the capacity to fight on for two to three weeks, and the UN was in session”.
Jacob’s above interview led to a furore. Many of critics attacked him for belittling the role of General Aurora and the others who also led the Indian Army in that war. But, General Jacob was unfazed.
Till his death he defended his role and always maintained that it was he who forced General Niazi to surrender. Under the NDA government led by the Prime Minister AB Vajpayee, he served as the Governor of Goa and Punjab.
His autobiography is aptly named “An Odyssey in War and Peace: An Autobiography Lt Gen. J.F.R. Jacob”. He had personally presented a copy of his autobiography to the Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014.
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