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Old 10-08-2016, 01:23 PM
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Lightbulb Hijrah: Migration for the Cause of Allah

Hijrah:
Migration for the Cause of Allah



https://www.missionislam.com/knowledge/hijrah.htm

taken form the book entitled: 'Al Wala' wa'l Bara' Authored by: Muhammad Sa'eed Al Qahtani


This is one of the most important facets of our discussion, since alliance and dissociation are always among the primary motivating factors of migration for the sake of Allah. We will divide our discussion of this into two broad areas:

1. Living among the disbelievers and its ruling.

2. Migrating from the abode of disbelief to the abode of Islam.

1. Living in the abode of disbelief

The jurists have explained the complimentary concepts of the "Abode of Disbelief' and that of "Islam" as follows:

The Abode of Disbelief is whatever land is ruled by the disbelievers, in which the laws of the disbelievers are supreme and political power is in their hands. These lands may be of two types. One which is at war with the Muslims and one which enjoys a truce with them. The determining factor is that it is ruled by the laws of the disbelievers; for it is the "Abode of Disbelief' or "Dar ulKufr", even if a large majority of Muslims live there. [33]

The Abode of Islam is any land that is ruled by the Muslims, where the Shari'ah is the supreme law and the Muslims hold political power. It is Dar ul-Islam, even if the majority of the population are disbelievers, so long as the Muslims rule it according to the Shari'ah. [34]

As Islam is the religion of dignity and authority, it was impossible to think of any Muslim submitting himself to the disbelievers; indeed it is forbidden for a Muslim to go to live amongst them and acknowledge their authority over him, because his presence amongst them would make him feel weak and isolated, and, then he would become docile and apologetic before them. He would first be called upon to approve of them, and then to follow them. But Muslims should be filled with morale and confidence, they should be leaders, not followers. They should hold the reins of power; no power should be above them but that of Allah. Therefore Muslims were forbidden to remain in countries where Islam is of no account, except when they are able to freely practice their religion and to observe it without any impediment, and without any fear that their presence there could damage them in any way. If this is not the case, then they must migrate to a better place where the authority of Islam is of some account. If they refuse to do so, while they are able, then they would have no further claims on this religion. About this Allah has spoken in Surat an-Nisa:

Verily! As for those whom the Angels have taken (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory to them), they (angels) asked them, "In what condition were you?". They replied, "We were weak and oppressed on earth". The Angels asked, "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?" Such men will find their abode in Hell - what an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, women and children who were unable to devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way [35]

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “I am not responsible for any Muslim who stays among polytheists. They asked: 'Why, Apostle of Allah? He said: ‘Their fires should not be visible to one another.’, and he (peace be upon him) said, “Who joins the polytheists and lives with them then he is like them” and he (peace be upon him) said: “Migration will not end until repentance ends, and repentance will not end until the sun rises in the west.”[36]

Al-Hassan Ibn Salih said: "whoever remains in the land of the enemy, will be treated like the disbelievers, so long as he was able to join the Muslims but did not do it. If one of the disbelievers accepts Islam, but still remains with the disbelievers, even though he was able to go to join the Muslims, he is to be treated like them; neither his blood nor his property will be protected. , [37]

Al-Hassan said: "If a Muslim emigrates to the land of the disbelievers, yet does not renounce Islam, he will be an apostate by virtue of his abandonment of 'Dar ul-Islam"'[38] . (The Arabic text of the preceding passage refers to the land of the disbelievers as ‘dar ul-harb' and 'Ard ul-Adu', that is: the 'land of the enemy'; this indicates an active military opposition to the Muslims, as if in a state of war).

Ibn Hazm states that: "Whoever joins the 'land of war and disbelief, of his own free will and in defiance of whoever amongst the Muslims calls him to his side, is by virtue of this act an apostate, by all the laws of apostasy, in Islam. Whoever is able to kill him must do so. His property is unprotected, his marriage null and void, all his rights are swept away.

But whoever flees to the 'land of war' for fear of oppression, who neither opposes the Muslims in anything nor bears any malice towards them, and who was not able to find any refuge among the Muslims, is free of any guilt since he was compelled to leave.

As for someone who takes the Muslims as his enemies, offering his help and his service to the disbelievers, he is a disbeliever. But those who would emigrate to non-Muslim lands in search of wealth or prosperity to live under their protection, while they were able to go to live amongst the Muslims in their own land, but still do not withdraw themselves from the disbelievers; such people are not far from the fold of disbelief, and we can find no possible excuse for them, so we ask Allah's Forgiveness.

As for the person who lives in the land of Karmathians by his own free will, he is without doubt a disbeliever, because they are avowed enemies of Islam, disbelievers and apostates who only long for the destruction of the Muslims. Concerning those who live in a land where some heretic tendencies, leading to disbelief, are manifested, they are not considered disbelievers, as Islam is supreme in the land where it is possible to practice Islam openly; to confirm the message of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), read the Qur'an, establish the prayer, perform the fast of Ramadan and fulfil one's obligations entirely.

The words of the Prophet (peace be upon him), "I am not responsible for any Muslim who stays among polytheists" should clarify what we have said so far. It is clear that the Prophet (peace be upon him) refers here to the 'Dar ul-Harb', and because he (peace be upon him) appointed some Companions as governors of Khaibar (Jewish land), even though everyone who lived there were Jews.

If a disbeliever conquers a Muslim country, then acknowledges their religion (Islam), but assumes authority over them, and then claims any other religion than Islam, whoever lives with him, supports, or serves him in any way is a disbeliever, even if he claims to be a Muslim, as aforementioned. ,[39]

Sheikh Hamad Ibn Ateeq, may Allah have mercy upon him, divided those Muslims who live in nonIslamic countries into three groups: Those who prefer to live amongst Non-Muslims because of their affection for them; those who live amongst non-Muslims yet ignore their obligation to denounce disbelief; and those who live amongst the non-Muslims but uphold their obligation to denounce disbelief.

The first group: stays amongst the disbelievers by choice and inclination, they praise and commend them, and are happy to disassociate themselves from the Muslims. They help the disbelievers in their struggle against the Muslims in any way they can, physically, morally, and financially. Such people are disbelievers, their position is actively and deliberately opposed to religion. Allah says,

The believers shall not take the disbelievers as allies in preference to the believers. Whoever does this shall never be helped by Allah in any way [40]

At-Tabari remarks that such a person would have washed his hands of Allah, and that Allah would have nothing to do with a person who actively rejects Him and denies His Religion. Allah , says:

0 you who believe! Do not take the Jews and the Christians as protectors, they are protectors of one another, whoever takes them as protectors is one of them.[41]

Then, in the words of the Prophet (peace be upon him): "Whoever joins the,disbelievers and lives amongst them is one of them'[42]

Abdullah Ibn Omar said: "Whoever settles amongst the disbelievers, celebrates their feasts and joins in their revelry and dies in their midst will likewise be raised to stand with them on the Day of Resurrection. [43] .

Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab, may Allah have mercy upon him, mentioned that in the case of a Muslim whose people remained bound to disbelief and followed the enemies of Islam, he too would become a disbeliever if he refused to abandon his people, just because he found it difficult. He would end up fighting against the Muslims alongside his nation, with his money and life. And if they were to order him to marry his father's wife, but could not prevent that unless he migrates from his country, he would be forced to marry her. His alliance and participation with them in their campaign against Islam and their struggle against Allah and His Messenger is far worse than marrying his father's wife. He is also a disbeliever, about whom Allah has said:

You will find others who hope for your protection, and for that of their own people. But whenever they are sent to temptation, they yield thereto. If they do not withdraw from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you may find them. In their case, We have given you a clear warrant against them. [44]

The second group: are those who remain amongst the disbelievers because of money, family or homeland. He does not demonstrate a strong attachment to his religion (Islam), nor does he emigrate. He does not support the disbelievers against the Muslims, whether in word or deed. His heart is not bound to them, nor does he speak on their behalf. Such a person is not considered a disbeliever merely because he continues to live among the disbelievers, but many would say that he has disobeyed Allah and His Messenger by not going to live among the Muslims, even though he may secretly hate the disbelievers. Allah has said,

Verily! As for those whom the Angels have taken (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory to them), they (angels) asked them, "In what condition were you?". They replied, "We were weak and oppressed on earth". The Angels asked, "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?"

Such men will find their abode in Hell - what an evil destination!”[45]

Ibn Kathir remarks: They were (wronging themselves) by refusing to emigrate. He continues by saying that this verse establishes a general rule which applies to anyone who is prevented from practising his religion, yet willingly remains among the disbelievers. There is no disagreement among the scholars, and the sources all state that this course of action is prohibited. [46]

Al-Bukhari relates that Ibn Abbas said that this verse was about "Some people from among the Muslims who stayed with the Pagans of Makkah, swelling their ranks, in the days of the Prophet. When fighting broke out some of them were killed and some wounded. Then Allah revealed the verse:

(Verily! As for those whom the Angels have taken (in death) while they are wronging themselves)”[47]

Whatever excuses they may have offered were rejected by the revelation,

Say, 'If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kinsmen, the wealth which you have acquired, the commerce in which you fear a decline, or the houses you love - if these are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allah brings about His Decision (Torment). Allah does not guide those who are AI-Faasiqun.[48]

Anyone who refuses to emigrate uses one of these eight excuses. But these excuses have already been rejected by Allah, Who has said that those who make such claims are disobedient to Him, and this was specifically with regard to those who chose to remain in Makkah which is the holiest place on earth. Allah required the believers to quit this place, and even love for it was not an acceptable excuse for refusal. How would such an excuse fare then for places other than Makkah? [49]

The third group: are those who may remain among the disbelievers without impediment, and they are two categories:

1. Those who are openly able -to proclaim their religion and dissociate themselves from disbelief. When they are able, they clearly disassociate themselves from the disbelievers and tell them openly that they are far from truth, and that they are wrong. This is what is known as 'Izhar ad-Din' or 'assertion of Islam'. This is what exonerates a person from the obligation to emigrate. As Allah has said: (Say, "0 Disbelievers, I do not worship what you worship and you are not worshipers of what I worship.. ).

Thus, Muhammad (peace be upon him), was commanded to tell the disbelievers of their clear disbelief and that their religion was not the same, nor was their worship, nor what they worshipped. That they could not be in the service of Allah, so long as they remained in the service of falsehood. He was commanded to express his satisfaction with Islam as his religion and his denial of the faith of the disbelievers. Allah SWT says:

Say (0 Muhammad): "0 mankind! If you are in doubt about my religion (Islam), then know that I do not worship what you worship besides Allah, rather I worship Allah Who causes you to die, and I am commanded to be among the believers. And (it is inspired to me): Direct your face (0 Muhammad) towards the religion Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism), and never be one of the Mushrikeen. [50]

Therefore, Whoever does this is not obliged to emigrate.

Asserting one's religion does not mean that you simply leave people to worship whatever they please without comment, like the Christians and the Jews do. It means that you must clearly and plainly disapprove of what they worship, and show enmity towards the disbelievers; failing this there is no assertion of Islam.

2. Those who live amongst the disbelievers, and have not the means to leave nor the strength to assert themselves, have a license to remain. Allah SWT, says,

Except for the weak ones among men, women and children who are unable to devise a plan, nor to direct their way.[51]

But the exemption comes after a promise to those who remain among the disbelievers, that,

Such men will find their abode in Hell - What an evil destination![52]

It is an exemption to those who could not devise a plan nor find any other way out. Ibn Kathir remarks: "These were people who could not rid themselves of the disbelievers, and even had they been able to do so, they would not have been able to direct their way" [53]

Allah says:

And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help'

[54]

So in the first verse, Allah swt mentions their situation, their weakness and inability to find any way to extricate themselves, and in the second, He mentions their plea to Allah to deliver them from their oppressors and to give them a protector, a helper and guide to victory. For these people Allah swt says:

For these there is hope that Allah will forgive them, and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, OftForgiving.[55]

Al-Baghawi commented that: "A Muslim who becomes a captive of the disbelievers must flee, if he is able, as he would not be permitted to remain under them. If they make him give his word that he would not run away if they were to release him, he should give them his word, but then he must try to escape; there would be noguilt upon him for his lie, since they had obligated him themselves. But if he had given them his promise, in order to ingratiate them to himself, he would be obliged to escape, just the same, but must also offer penance for his wilful deception of their trust"[56]

The rulings about travel to disbelieving countries (Dar ul-Harb) for purposes of trade are broadly detailed. If you are able to assert your faith, while not supporting the disbelievers, then this is permitted. Indeed, some of the Companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him) travelled to some countries of disbelievers in search of trade, among them Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not prevent them from this, as Imam Ahmad points out in his Musnad and elsewhere. [57]

If you are unable to assert your religion or avoid supporting them, then it is not permitted to venture amongst them for trading purposes. The subject has been addressed by the scholars and the relevant support for their position will be found in the Prophet's Ahaadeeth. Allah has required all believers to uphold their faith and to oppose the disbelievers. Nothing is allowed to undermine or interfere with these obligations.[58]

While this is quite clear from many different sources, we still find a carefree attitude among many Muslims today with regard to this subject. The forming of friendships with those who are rightly our enemies, and establishing communities in their countries has been trivialised. Remarkably, some Muslims even send their children to the West to study Islamic Law and Arabic in European and American universities! This will stand as an absurd monument to the foolishness of those Muslims of the twentieth century, who sent their children to the disbelievers to study Islamic Law and Arabic!

Our scholars have warned us enough of the dangers which these questions raise, and they have carefully explained the perils of such educational exchanges, and of the desire of the disbelievers to corrupt the minds of our youth to turn them away from Islam, so we should take time to consider what we are doing. [59]

2. Emigration from the Abode of Disbelief to

Muslim Countries

"Hijrah" is the Arabic word for emigration. It means, ultimately, to separate or abandon. In religious terminology it means to move from a non-Muslim place of abode to a place where there is a presence of Islam [60]. It is a fact that those whose religion is Islam; which is based on directing all kinds of worship to Allah, rejecting and showing hatred to polytheism and disbelievers; will never be left at peace by the antithesis of Islam, as Allah has said:

They will not stop fighting you until they turn you away from your religion, if they are able [61]

and He says about the people of the Cave:

For if they come to know of you, they will stone you or turn you back to their religion, then you will never prosper [62]

and finally, about the disbelievers declared aim, Allah says:

Those who disbelieved said to their Messengers: "We will drive you out of our lands, or you shall return you to our religion". So their Lord revealed this to them: "Surely We shall destroy the Zaalimun (disbelievers)”[63]

Likewise, Waraqah Ibn Nawfal said, anticipating the mission of the Prophet "1 wish I could be young at the time when you will be driven away by your people." He said, "Will they throw me out?". "Yes, Nawfal replied, no one has ever come with a thing such as this who was not then driven away by his own people". So it was that the Quraish first drove the Prophet (peace be upon him) from Makkah to Ta'if, then to Madinah; and some of his Companions emigrated twice to Abyssinia. [64]

The Hijrah is a vitally important aspect of Islam; it is at once the guiding principle of alliance and dissociation and the supreme example of it. The Muslims could never have abandoned their homes and families, exposing themselves to the pain of separation and the hardship of migration if it had not been indispensable to the practice of their religion and the assertion of Islam in the land. Allah promised these emigrants a great reward in this world and the next, saying:

Those who left their homes for the sake of Allah after having suffered persecution shall be settled in comfort in this world but in the next is the greater reward if they but knew. Those who were steadfast and who upon their

Lord totally depend.[65]

Hijrah has a comprehensive meaning as understood in Islam. It is not simply just the act of moving from one place to another; from a non-Muslim country to a Muslim country. Ibn al-Qayyim explains that it is, in fact, an emigration of the body and the spirit. A physical movement from one place to another and a spiritual migration to Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him). It is this second migration which constitutes the real migration, as the body simply follows the soul. Thus, the meaning of moving from one thing to something else is that the heart moves from the love of something other than Allah to love of Allah; from servitude of something or other to the service and worship of Allah; from fear of something or other to hope in and reliance upon Allah. It is Allah Who is the object of one's hope and fear; prayers are addressed to Him; and He is the One before Whom one feels humility and awe. This is the meaning of flight which Allah mentions in the command: (So flee to Allah). [66]

This is the essence of monotheism (Tawhid); that you abandon all else and flee to Allah. Flight is from something to something else, and in this case it is from whatever is odious in the sight of Allah to whatever He loves. This is essentially an expression of either love or revulsion. Whoever flees a thing exchanges an undesirable thing for something better, in response to his own preference. This kind of migration may be more or less strongly motivated depending upon the degree of love in one's heart. The stronger or deeper the love, the more complete and secure is the migration. If this love is shallow then the migration is less secure, and this may continue to the point of complete indifference. [67]

The rulings regarding actual physical migration from the lands of the disbelievers to a land of Islam is as follows:

Imam al-Khattabee [68] points out that in the early days of Islam physical migration was recommended but not required, as Allah says:

Whoever migrates for the sake of Allah will find refuge and great bounty in the earth . [69]

This was revealed when the pagan persecution of the Muslims at Makkah was on the rise, after the Prophet has left for Madinah. But after this they were subsequently commanded to follow him there in order to be with him. They were required to cooperate as a single community, to learn their religion from the Prophet and to get an understanding of it directly from him. At this time the greatest threat to the Muslim community was posed by the Quraish, who were the masters of Makkah. After Makkah fell, the obligation was again lifted and migration became once again a matter of preference. Bearing this in mind, we are in a better position to understand the report of Muawiyah who related that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Migration will not end until repentance ends, and repentance will not end until the sun rises in the west". And that of Ibn Abbas who said: "The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, on the day of the conquest of Makkah, 'There is no migration (after the conquest), except for Jihad and good intentions, and when you are called for Jihad, you should immediately respond to the call”[70] . The chain of narrators in Ibn Abbas's Hadith is Sahih, but that of Muawiyah is disputed by some. [71]

Because of the significance of the Hijrah, especially in the early days of Islam, Allah swt severed the ties of mutual support between the Muslims who migrated to Madinah and those who chose to remain in Makkah, saying:

Indeed those who believe and who migrated and who struggle in the Path of Allah with their wealth and their lives, and those who gave them shelter and who gave them help, these are allies of one another. But those who believe yet did not migrate have no part in this alliance until they too migrate. If they seek your assistance in faith you must help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty. Allah is well aware of what you do [72]

Following this, Allah praises the migrants and the Helpers (Muhajirun and Ansar) saying:

Those who believe and who migrated and who struggled in the Path of Allah, and those who gave shelter and aid, these are the true believers. Forgiveness and bountiful provision are theirs. [73]

We have already discussed the Muhajirin and the Ansar, what we will look at now are those believers who did not make the Hijrah, but who stayed in Makkah the time of conflict. Allah says:

Verily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (as they stayed among the disbelievers even though emigration was obligatory for them), they (angels) say to them: "In what condition were you?" They reply: "We were weak and oppressed on earth". The angels say: "Was not the earth spacious enough for you to emigrate therein?" Such men will find their abode in Hell - What an evil destination. Except for the weak ones among men, women and children who are unable to devise a plan, nor to direct their way. For these there is hope that Allah will forgive them, and Allah is Ever Oft Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving. [74]

Al-Bukhari relates that Ibn Abbas said that some Muslims used to live among the disbelievers, increasing their population during the Prophet (peace be upon him) era. They were killed or injured in the fighting, so Allah swt revealed: (Verily! As for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves).

Therefore, the believers who did not emigrate but who remained in their homes had no share in the war booty, nor in its fifth part, except in the battles in which they took part, as Imam Ahmad has stated[75]. This is indicated by a Hadith mentioned by Imam Ahmad and also reported by Muslim on the authority of Sulaiman Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, that: "Whenever the Prophet (peace be upon him) appointed a commander over an army or a detachment, he advised him privately to be mindful of his duty to Allah and to guard the welfare of the Muslims who were under his command. Then, he said, "Fight in the name of Allah, and for His Sake. Fight whoever disbelieves in Allah. Do not embezzle the spoils, nor break your pledge, nor mutilate the dead bodies, nor kill children. When you meet your enemies, the polytheists, invite them to three things and if they make a positive response to you, accept it and withhold yourselves from doing any harm to them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of the Emigrants and tell them that if they will do so, they will have (all the privileges and obligations) that the Emigrants have; but if they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will be like the Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah swt which are applicable to other Muslims and they will not be entitled to any booty nor Fai' unless they perform Jihad along with the Muslims. If they should refuse, demand Jizyah from them; but if they agree to pay Jizyah, accept it from them and restrain your hands from them. But if they refuse to pay Jizyah,seek Allah's Succour and fight against them...” [76]

The preceding discussion about Hijrah may be summarised as follows:

1. Migration from the lands of disbelievers to the lands of Muslims was mandatory in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him), and it is still obligatory till the Day of Judgement. The obligation which the Prophet (peace be upon him) lifted after the conquest of Makkah was that of taking up residence near him. Whoever accepts Islam while living among those who are at war with Muslims must leave to make his home among the Muslims. [77]

This is supported by the Hadith of Mujaashi' Ibn Mas'ud who said: "I took my brother to the Prophet after the Conquest of Makkah, and said, "0 Allah's Apostle! I have come to you with my brother so that you may take a pledge of allegiance from him for migration." The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The people of migration (i.e. those who migrated to Madinah before the Conquest) enjoyed the privileges of migration (i.e. there is no need for migration anymore)." I said to the Prophet (peace be upon him), "For what will you take his pledge of allegiance?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "I will take his pledge of allegiance for Islam, Belief, and for Jihad” [78]

2. It is obligatory to leave the lands of the Bidah(innovation). Imam Malik said: "None of you may remain in a country where the Companions are cursed' [79].

3. It is obligatory to leave a place where forbidden practices are rife since it is mandatory for Muslims to demand observance of the Law [80]. In this regard, Ibn Taymiyyah said, "The state of a place reflects the state of a person. It is possible to be sometimes a Muslim and at other times a disbeliever; sometimes sincere and at other times hypocritical; sometimes good and pious and at other times rotten and corrupt. Thus, a person becomes like the place of his abode. The migration of a person from a land of disbelief and profanity to one of faith and probity is an expression of repentance and of his turning away from disobedience and perversion to belief and obedience. This is so until the Day of Resurrection."[81]

4. One must flee persecution and oppression. This is to be counted as one of the many blessings of Allah swt that he has given His license, to whoever fears for himself and his own safety, to go and find some sanctuary for himself. The first to do this was Abraham,~ who, when he was threatened by his own people said: (1 will emigrate for the sake of my Lord), (29:26), and, (1 am going to my Lord, He shall guide me), (37:99). Then there was Moses: (So he escaped from there, vigilant and fearing for his life, and said "My Lord deliver me from these oppressors" ), (28:21 ).[82]

5. In times of epidemic, people were required to leave the city and remain in the hinterland until the threat of disease had passed. The exception to this is in times of plague. [83]

6. If one fears for the safety of his family or the security of his property then he must also flee since security of one's possessions is like the safety of one's person. [84]

Finally, migration, like anything else, is in the first instance a matter of intention, for the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Indeed actions are but by intention, and each will be rewarded according to his intent. So whose goal is to migrate for Allah and His Messenger, his migration is for Allah and His Messenger, and whose aim is to migrate to some worldly gain or to take the hand of a woman in marriage, his migration is to that which he has sought."[85]


Oh Allah please accept my hijrah and expiate my sins ameen


[33] Abdur Rahman Ibn Sa'dee, "Al-Fatawee as-Sa'diyya", Vol. 1/92, 1st Edition, 13 8 8 A.H., Dar al-Hayat, Damascus.

[34] Ibid. Vol. 1/92.

[35] An-Nisa': 97-98.

[36] "Al-Musnad", Vol.4/99, Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Jihad, Vol.3/7, Hadith 2479, and ad-Darami, Kitab as-Siyyar, Vol.2/239. Albani classifies it as Sahih. See: "Sahih al-Ja'mi' as-Sagheer", Vol.6/186, Hadith 7346.

[37] Al-Jasaas, "Ahkam al-Qur'an", Vol.3/216.

[38] lbd.

[39] Ibn Hazm, al-Muhalla’: Vol. 13/139-140

[40] Aal-Imran: 28.

[41] 'Al-Ma'idah: 51.

[42] Ibn Ateeq, "Ad-Difaa "', p, 10- 12.

[43] Ibn Taymiyyah said in his book: "Iqtidha' as-Sifat alMustaqeem", p.200, that the chain of narration of this Hadith is Sahih.

[44] An-Nisa’: 91.

[45] An-Nisa': 97

[46] "Tafsir Ibn Kathir", 2/343, and Ibn Ateeq, "Ad-Difaa "', p. 13.

[47] "Sahih al-Bukhari", Vol.8/262, Hadith 4596.

[48] AI-Ma'idah: 24.

[49] Ibn Ateeq, "Ad-Difaa "', p. 13-14, and see also, Ibn Ateeq's "Bayan an-Najaat wal Fakak", p.70-72.

[50] Yunus: 104-105.

[51] An-Nisd: 98

[52] An-Nisa’: 97

[53] "Tafsir Ibn Kathir", Vol.2/343

[54] An-Nisa’: 75

[55] An-Nisd: 99

[56] Al-Baghawi, "Sharh as-Sunnah", Vol. 10/246.

[57] This is quoted from the "al-Jami' al-Farid', but the author was unable to find any such reference in the Musnad.

[58] See: "al-Jami' al-Farid” p.382, 2nd Edition.

[59] Two of these scholars are Muhammad Muhammad Hussein in his valuable books: "Al-Ittijaahaat al-Wataniyyah", "Al-Islam wal Hadaara al-Gharbiyya" and "Husununa Muhaddada min Dakhilihaa"; also there is a valuable study by Sheikh Muhammad Lutfi as-Sabaagh called "Al-Ibtia'th wa Makhaatiruhu".

[60] "Fath al-Bari", Vol.1/16.

[61] Al-Baqarah: 217.

[62] Al-Kahf: 20

[63] Ibrahim: 13

[64] Ibnu Ateeq, "ad-Difaa "', pp. 18, 19, and "Seerat Ibn Hisham", Vol. 1, p.254.

[65] 'An-Nahl: 41-42

[66] Az-Zariyat: 50

[67] Ibn al-Qayyim, "Ar-Risaalat at-Tabuqiyyah" , pp. 14-18, 2nd edition, 1394, Egypt.

[68] His full name is Imam Hamad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Ibn alKhaftab, of the descendants of Zayd Ibn al-Khattab, he is known as Abu Sulayman. He was a jurist, narrator of Hadith, a poet, and a linguist Among his students, al-Hakim an-Nisaaburi. Al-Khattabee was born in Kabul in 319 A.H. and died in 388 A.H. For more information, see: the introduction of "Maalim as-Sunan" published . with "Sunan Abu Dawud', Vol. 1/11, and az-Zarkali's "Al-A'laam", Vol.2/273,4th edition.

[69] at An-Nisa': 100

[70] "Sahih al-Bukhari", The Book of Jihad, Vol.6/37, hadith 2825

[71] Al-Khattabee, “Maalim as-Sunan", Vol.3/352, revised by Ahmad Shakir and Muhammad Haamid al-Faqee, see also: "An-Naasikh wal Mansukh", p.207.

[72] "Al-Anfal: 72.

[73] AI-Anfal: 74.

[74] An-Nisa': 97-99.

[75] "Tafsir Ibn Kathir", Vol.4/40.

[76] “Musnad Ahmad", Vol.5/352, and "Sahih Muslim", "The Book of Jihad', Vol.3/1357, Hadith, 1731.

[77] Ibn al-Arabi, "Ahkaam al-Qur'an", Vol.1/484, and an-Nawawi's "Sharh Muslim", Vol. 13/8, and "Ta/sir al-Qurtubi" Vol.5/308.

[78] "Sahih Al-Bukhari", "The Book of Jihad', 6/189, Hadith 3079

[79] Ibn al-Arabi, "Ahkaam al-Qur'an", Vol. 1/484-485.

[80] Ibn al-Arabi, "Ahkaam al-Qur'an", Vol. 1/484-485

[81] “Majmu'al-Fatawa", 18/284

[82] Ibn al-Arabi, "Ahkaam al-Qur'an", Vol. 1/485.

[83] "Sahih al-Bukhari", "The Book of at-Tib", Vol.10/142, Hadith :5686, and "Sahih Muslim”, The Book of al-Qisama", Vol.3/1296, Hadith 1271. For the Hadith of plague, see: “Sahih al-Bukhari", "The Book of at-Tib", Vol. 10/179, Hadith 5728, and Muslim "The Book of as-Salam", Vol.4/1741, Hadith 2219.

[84] Ibn al-Arabi, "Ahkaam al-Qur'an", Vol. 1/486.

[85] "Sahih al-Bukhari", "The Book o Bad'al-Wahy", Vol.1/9, Hadith 1, and "Sahih Muslim", "The Book of al-Imaara", Vol.3/1515, Hadith 1907.

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Exclamation Clarifying The Meaning Of Jihad

Clarifying The Meaning Of Jihad



http://islamicsystem.blogspot.com/20...-of-jihad.html


‘Jihad’ is extracted from the source, ‘Jaahada’ and it measured upon the fourth verb structure, which means interaction between two sides, al-Mufa’ala. Another example is ‘Al-Khisaam’ which means to quarrel and is extracted from its roots source – Khaasama. Also, there is the example of ‘Jidaal’, which means to discuss or to argue and is taken from the root source ‘Jaadala’.

In the tongue of the Arabs, al-Jihad means, ‘exerting ability and effort to do an action or express opinions’.

In Al-Munjid, the words Jaahada, Mujaahada and Jihadan means, ‘exerting effort and ability to push the other away’. In the Tafseer of al-Naysaboori it is clearly stated that ‘al-Jihad’ means to exert effort to achieve the objective or what is intended.

After all of these related definitions of the word ‘al-Jihad’ in the language, it is possible to give a clear linguistic definition, which is: ‘al-Jihad is the exerting of all effort and ability between two sides by the least.’

Based on the linguistic definition, the exerted effort could be via material weapons or without a weapon, with money or without money. Also it could be the struggle between two opposing desires exerting effort (Jihad) to overcome the other. It could also be by words and could be by refusing to do an action or to speak. An example of this is like the one who disobeys his parents when they order him to disobey Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) and the person becomes patient and perseveres when his parents insist in ordering him. And it is like the one who abstains from committing a haram desire when his nafs calls him to it. This is what is mentioned in Hashiyat Al-Jamal in al-Jalalayn: “Jihad is to have patience on difficulties. It could be during war and it could be inside the nafs.”

Based on this linguistic definition, the opponent that the Muslim engages Jihad against could be his own nafs, or the shaiytan, or the transgressor or the kuffar. Additionally, by this definition, Jihad could also be that which is in the way of Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) ‘Fi Sabeel Lillah’’. So the Jihad could be undertaken to please Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) or to please the shaiytan, like the Jihad of the Kuffar against others. Al-Naysaboori, wrote, “It is exerting effort to achieve the objective or what is intended regardless of the nature of the objective intended by the one who is exerting the effort.” The Quran used the word ‘Jihad’ in describing the activity of the kaafir fathers to make their believing children reject true belief. Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) says:

وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا

“If they do Jihad to make commit association with me…do not obey them” (tmq Surah Luqman 31:15)

In the Shariyah, the word ‘al-Jihad’ was transferred from the general linguistic meaning to a special confined (restricted) meaning in the Quran and the Sunnah. It is, “the exerting of the effort to fight in the Way of Allah directly or by financial aid, or opinion and the like” This special meaning of Jihad was given in Medina. In Mecca, the legislation concerning Jihad was not revealed and that is why the subject of Jihad in the Mecci surahs carries the general linguistic meaning. They are the three verses (ayaat) in Surah al-Ainkaboot:

وَمَن جَاهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَاهِدُ لِنَفْسِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِين

“And if any struggle ‘Jaahid’ (with might and main), they do so for their own souls: for Allah is free of all needs from all creation.” (tmq 29:6)

وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

“But if they (either of them) struggle ‘Jaahada’ (to force) you to join with Me (in worship) anything of which you have no knowledge, obey them not. You have (all) to return to me, and I will tell you (the truth) of all that ye did.” (tmq 29:8)

وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنَا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

“And those who strive in Our cause ‘Jaahadu’- We will certainly guide them to our Paths: For verily Allah is with those who do right.” (tmq 29:69)

Also in surah Luqman verse 15, the word Jihad is used in the linguistic context. Regarding the verse in surah Al-Nahl talking about Jihad, it mentioned ‘al-Hijra’, which means that this is a Madani verse in a Mecci surah (chapter) – and this was mentioned by the al-Mufasiroon. The verse is:

ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُواْ مِن بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُواْ ثُمَّ جَاهَدُواْ وَصَبَرُواْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِن بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

“But verily Your Lord- those who leave their homes after trials and persecutions,- and who thereafter struggle ‘Jaahadu’ and fight for the faith and patiently persevere,- Your Lord, after all this is oft-forgiving, Most Merciful”. (tmq 16:110)

The subject of Jihad in Medina occurs 26 (twenty-six) times and the majority of them carry the clear meaning of Fighting, ‘Qitaal’. From these verses are:

لاَّ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُوْلِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فَضَّلَ اللّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً وَكُـلاًّ وَعَدَ اللّهُ الْحُسْنَى وَفَضَّلَ اللّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

“Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah has granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). To all (in Faith) has Allah promised good. But those who strive and fight has He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward.” (tmq 4:95)

It is clear in this verse that al-Jihad is in the meaning of going out to fight and that it is better than staying at home. Also from the verses about Jihad in surah Al-Tawba:

انْفِرُواْ خِفَافًا وَثِقَالاً وَجَاهِدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“Go forth, (whether equipped) lightly or heavily, and strive and struggle, with your goods and your persons, in the cause of Allah. That is best for you, if you (but) knew.” (tmq 9:41)

The order of ‘Nafr’ (going out) means that Jihad is fighting.

لَـكِنِ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَعَهُ جَاهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper.” (tmq 9:88)

Also in surah Al-Saf, after mentioning fighting (Jihad) at the beginning, Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُم بُنيَانٌ مَّرْصُوصٌ

“Truly Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in battle array, as if they were a solid cemented structure.” (tmq 61:4)

It is clear in the Madani verses that the subject of Jihad is specifically related to fighting and what fighting entails naturally from finance, weapons and the like. Also these verses demonstrate aspects of the conditions that precede the action of fighting and are conditional for its legality i.e. propagating the invitation for non-Muslims to embrace Islam (as this is the original condition for fighting as has been mentioned in ‘Mughni al-Muhtaj) and/or accept the Islamic authority over them. From the Sunnah of Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam), Jihad has been mentioned also with this shariyah meaning i.e. fighting and what it entails.

On the authority of Abi Hurayrah, who said: “People asked, “Oh Rasoolallah, tell us about an action that is equal to the Jihad fi Sabeel Lillah?” Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “You will not find it bearable.” They replied, “Tell us oh Rasoolallah, maybe we can be able to withstand it.” Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “The example of a mujahid Fi Sabeel Lillah is like the fasting man, the one who stays up at its night and prays and the one who is obedient to the verses of Allah, does not get tired of fasting, nor stops sadaqah until the mujahid returns back to his family.”

It is clear from the wording of the hadith that the question was about the mujahid with the meaning of the fighter in the Way of Allah (Fi Sabeel Lillah) specifically. The answer also indicated the same meaning when Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “Until the mujahid returns back to his family” i.e. returns back from the fighting. Also by the authority of Jaabir, that the people asked Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam), “Which Jihad is better?” He (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “The one in which one’s horse is wounded and one’s blood is split in it.” On the authority of ibn Abbas, he said that Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, “When your brothers were killed in the battle of Uhud, Allah put their souls inside green birds that wonder inside Jannah landing on the rivers of Jannah and eats from its fruits. When they see how they spend their time and they look at their food and drink and how great it was, they say, ‘How we wish that our people know about how Allah rewarded us, so that they may love Jihad and not refrain from it.’ So then Allah says to them that, ‘I will tell you people and your brothers on your behalf.’ So they became happy with that news.” Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) sent this in surah Al-Imran on the occasion of the Battle of Uhud:

وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَمْوَاتًا بَلْ أَحْيَاء عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ

“Think not of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord.” (tmq 3:169)

From all of these shariyah texts, it is clear that the Legislator transferred the word Jihad from its general linguistic meaning to a special meaning, which is ‘al-Qitaal’ (fighting) and whatever is linked to it directly and indirectly, as has been mentioned earlier. Moreover, it relates to the words, which carry the same meaning of al-Jihad like war. From this we can see that the shariyah texts defined Jihad as fighting (qitaal) in the Way of Allah (Fi Sabeel Lillah) and this can be found in the books of fiqh, which dealt with the shariyah meaning of Jihad and laws related to it.

In Badi’ul Sanai’ of the Hanafi Mazhab, it states the following: “Jihad in the language is exerting effort. In the understanding of the Shara, it is exerting effort and energy in fighting fi sabeel lillah by nafs, finance, tongue or another.”

In Manhul Jaleel of the Maliki Mazhab, al-Jihad is defined as the, “fighting by a Muslim against a kaafir (who does not have a treaty with the Muslims) to make the word of Allah the highest…. or for a Muslim to arrive to do Jihad or to enter the Kaafir’s land for fighting.” Ibn Arafa defined this.

According to the Shafi Mazhab in Al-Iqna, Jihad is fighting ‘Fi Sabeel Lillah’. Al-Shirazi in Al-Muhazab said that Jihad is ‘qitaal’.

In Al-Mughni according to the Hanbali Mazhab, Ibn Qudama did not give any other definition. In the section ‘kitab ul-Jihad’ whatever is related to war, whether it was fard ul-kifaya (collective obligation) or fard ul-ayn (individual obligation) or whether it was in the form of guarding the believers from the enemy and the guards ‘ribat’ at the borders, all of this is connected to Jihad. He also said, “If the enemy arrives, Jihad becomes fard ul-ayn on the murabitoon (border guards). If it becomes evident that the enemy arrived, then they do not leave to meet them except by an order of the Ameer, since the Ameer is the one who has the authority for issuing orders in the matters of war.”

So it is clear that the meaning of Jihad was transferred from the linguistic to the shariyah meaning, such that it was understood to mean fighting and nothing else. Such purity and clarity over its meaning today is clearly vague, from what is heard from the lips of rulers over the Islamic lands and even amongst the Muslim ummah itself, as a result of the dominance and pollution of western political thought and reeling from a defeatist mentality that seeks to be apologetic.

So what emerged and dominated the opinion were those who sincerely but incorrectly took Jihad as the rule for all matters whilst others reduced Jihad as a matter connected to defending the ‘nafs’ and identity i.e. defensive fighting as opposed to offensive fighting. Others went further to say that Jihad is of the ‘nafs’ and overcoming desires only, calling it the ‘Great Jihad’, further saying that it is better than the small Jihad which is ‘qitaal’ (fighting). Such are those that have become lazy and feeble, with their hearts filled with the fear of the enemy.

So the protection of the Deen, hatred of the Kuffar and the love of Jihad has become replaced with the protection of the nation-state (nationalism), pleasing the colonialists and the love of excessive material gain. Since these incorrect concepts have become common between Muslims and the clear definition of Jihad is absent from the minds, the incentive and love to do Jihad, for many, has died (though the increased hostility and aggression of the western nations in the Islamic lands has served to re-kindle the correct desire).

It is, therefore, naturally important to clarify this matter such that the Muslims are able to refute the erroneous misunderstandings that exist, refute false claims and rekindle the love of Jihad.

Greater/Smaller Jihad

Firstly, the common understanding of Muslims is that Jihad is divided into two sections: Jihad ul-Akbar (the ‘Greater Jihad’), which is connected to Jihad ul-Nafs i.e. fighting the inner desires and shaiytan etc… Jihad ul-Asghar (the ‘Smaller Jihad’), which is fighting the kaafir enemy in battles and what is related to it.

Of the evidences that are quoted from the Islamic texts, the main one is the hadith, where Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: “We have arrived from the small Jihad to the great Jihad”. So they asked, “What is the great Jihad?” He (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, “It is Jihad ul-Nafs (against the inner self).”

In another narration, Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) referred to the“…Jihad of the slave against his desires.”

Though it is correct that there is a Jihad against the nafs, like against shaiytan, however, it is not greater in the sight of Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) from the physical Jihad against the Kuffar and it (Jihad ul-Nafs) does not cancel nor invalidate it.

This Jihad against the Kaafir enemies is continuous until the Day of Judgment as is the Jihad against the nafs also continuous until the Day of Judgement. But one should know that the evidences of doing Jihad against the nafs are different to the evidences of Jihad against the Kuffar.

Each has a situation different from the other (context) and it is not permitted to mix the two or to use the evidence of one for the other or to change one in place of the other. Rather there is a need for each, but in its correct context and each of them is a responsibility when put in their correct contexts.

This is why saying that ‘Jihad ul-nafs’ is better and greater in the sight of Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) is both very dangerous and an outright mistake, which contradicts the understanding of Jihad in the Way of Allah.

It is invalid from many angles:

1. Jihad has two meanings as mentioned previously, a linguistic and a shariyah meaning. Jihad of the nafs comes under the linguistic meaning and not the shariyah meaning. 2. The evidences used to say that Jihad ul-nafs is greater than Jihad against the Kuffar cannot be used to prove this and this is clear from the reality of the evidences that are used. This is because,

a. The hadith is ‘mardood riwayatan’

b. The hadith is ‘mardood dirayatan’

With regards to its invalidation from narration that is because the hadith is weak ‘Da’eef’ as is clarified in Al-Ajmi Al-Saghir by Imam Suyuti. As for its invalidation by meaning that is because it is contradicting definite text, which makes Jihad Fi Sabeel Lillah obligatory and makes it the greatest of action.

This can be seen from three aspects:

a. The verses that mention the value of the Jihad Fi Sabeel Lillah and that it is from the best actions like the verse:

لاَّ يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُوْلِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فَضَّلَ اللّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً وَكُـلاًّ وَعَدَ اللّهُ الْحُسْنَى وَفَضَّلَ اللّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

“Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah has granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). To all (in Faith) has Allah promised good. But those who strive and fight has He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward.” (tmq 4:95)

b. The verses that praise Jihad and the Mujahideen Fi Sabeel Lillah like the verse,

لَـكِنِ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَعَهُ جَاهَدُواْ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمُ الْخَيْرَاتُ وَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

“But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive and fight with their wealth and their persons: for them are (all) good things: and it is they who will prosper.” (tmq 9:88)

إِنَّ اللّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُواْ بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُم بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

“Allah has purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Quran: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded: that is the achievement supreme.” (tmq 9:111)

c. The verses that condemn and promises punishment to those who do not participate in Jihad, the ones left behind and the lazy neglectful ones,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الأَرْضِ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الآخِرَةِ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ

“O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that, when you are asked to go forth in the cause of Allah, you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter.” (tmq 9:38)

In addition to this are the sayings of Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) that the best action to Allah is Jihad Fi Sabeel Lillah and the fighting (qitaal) against the Kuffar: From the many narrations, Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, ”Taking a journey in the Way of Allah (Fi Sabeel Lillah) is better than the duniya and what is in it.”

“Those who guard (the borders) for one day in the Way of Allah (Fi Sabeel Lillah) is better than the duniya and what is in it.” ”If anyone takes a position in the Way of Allah (Fi Sabeel Lillah) it is better than his prayer ‘salah’ in his house for 70 years. Don’t you want Allah to forgive you your sins and enter you in the Jannah? Invade, in the Way of Allah (Fi Sabeel Lillah).”

Therefore what has been mentioned in the text shows clearly that Jihad Fi Sabeel Lillah is one of the best actions and of the highest degree, which is clearly shown by the shariyah indicators, ‘Qarain’, that connect praise, condemnation, reward and punishment to expose the fact that Jihad Fi Sabeel Lillah is greater and better than Jihad against the nafs. This is why the hadith is invalid in meaning ‘dirayatan’ because it contradicts the definite texts and therefore it is invalid ‘baatil’ to use as an evidence (i.e. to show that Jihad ul-nafs is a greater action).

Is Jihad is defensive only?


As for the opinion that Jihad in Islam is defensive and not offensive by using the evidence (and similar evidences):

وَإِنْ جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
“But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is One that Hears and Knows (all things)” (tmq 8:61)

وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ
“Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.” (tmq 2:190)

This is also incorrect and invalid for its application upon this matter is incorrect for the following reasons:

1. The evidences of Jihad are general ‘mutlaq’ evidences and include all offensive and defensive actions e.g. waging warm to pre-empt an attack, to protect the borders, killing on the battlefield. To restrict or specify the evidences only to defensive and not offensive Jihad, requires a textual evidence to show that the Jihad is restricted to defensive Jihad only. And there is no such text in the Quran or the Sunnah that restricts or specifies this. Therefore, the evidences regarding Jihad remain general and to be used for all types of war and all types of fighting with the enemy. So it is invalid (baatil) to use the verse,

وَإِن جَنَحُواْ لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا

“But if the enemy incline towards peace, do you…” (tmq 8:61), to show that Jihad is only defensive.

That is also the case with the rest of the evidences that are used by proponents of this erroneous understanding. This and similar verses cannot be used to specify or restrict the generality of the verses in surah al-Tawba because they were the last verses revealed regarding Jihad and what came prior to these verses regarding Jihad does not specify the verses which were revealed after them or came afterwards. And the verse does not restrict the latter revealed verses either. There has to be a text present to restrict or specify the general verse and they also must be revealed after the initial, which are general or mutlaq or even they (i.e. those verses which are restricted or specific) should be mentioned together with the general verses so that the two situations can be shown (i.e. to show the different situations upon which they apply). So Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) says: وَإِن جَنَحُواْ لِلسَّلْمِ , which is regarding the time of the peace. And He (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) says,

قَاتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَابَ حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ
Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued”, (tmq 9:29) which is at the time of war and fighting.

So peace and fighting are two situations, which remain un-abrogated, i.e. neither abrogates the other.

2. In addition to this, the saying and actions of Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) show that Jihad definitely is to start (offensive) fighting the kuffar to make the Words of Allah the highest and to propagate (da’wa) the call of Islam. Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) said,

“I have been ordered to fight the people until they bear witness that, ‘there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger’ and they establish the prayer and the zakat. And if they do this, then from me is protected their blood and their wealth except by the right granted by Allah.”

As for his (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) actions, they are full of actions that show Jihad is to start the fighting. So when he went out to Badr to take the caravan belonging to the Quraysh, this was going out to fight, this is offensive – as Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) initiated the action before the Quraysh.

Likewise, when Muhammad (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) invaded Hawazin in the battle of Hunayn, when he (Salalahu Alaihi Wasallam) seiged Ta’if and the battle of Mutah to fight the Romans and the Battle of Tabuk – all of these are evidences to show that Jihad is to start fighting kuffar (offensive). This should clarify the erroneous view that in origin Jihad is defensive.

3. From Ijma as-Sahabah, it is clear that Jihad is fighting Fi Sabeel Lillah to carry Islam and that it is offensive. The evidence, which is sufficient to explain this, is the opening of Iraq, Persia, Sham, Egypt and North Africa. They were all opened at the time of the Sahabah with their Ijma’ (consensus). Therefore, all what we mentioned are sufficient evidences to refute the claim that Jihad is defensive.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Muslims should gain the confidence to present the reality of Jihad to our ummah and raise the level of thinking on this issue such that the Muslims become clearer about its meaning, obligation, gain an increased love for it and importantly, understand the contexts in which it exists and is applied.

The Islamic Ummah, served with the responsibility to present and guard Islam should not allow the rulers over the Islamic lands to pollute the meaning of Jihad and remove its love from the hearts of the believers. Indeed, the Islamic Ummah should not allow these rulers to commit the greater crime to rule over her by other than Islam and dilute the purity of the whole of Islam with their shamelessness, implementation of kufr and humiliating subservience to a part of the creation i.e. their colonial masters, instead of their subservience to the Creator and Master of all that is seen and unseen, Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala).

As for the interaction with the non-Muslims, it is important that the Muslims have the clarity and strength to tackle the malicious, incorrect and hateful propaganda that is focussed on Jihad that is presented as barbaric against peaceful people with the objective to force them to embrace Islam by compulsion and the sword.

The Islamic ummah should tackle this from two perspectives.

Firstly, the Muslims should expose the violent, barbaric and inhumane foreign policy of the ‘civilised’ colonial powers that have destroyed nations, states and people; left millions to starve for the sake of securing capitalist interests, appointed and protected oppressive regimes that suppress the will of their people; plundered resources of the lesser developed and invade lands with brute force, terrorising the local civilian people with indiscriminate policies of killing, imprisonment, rape, ‘carpet bombing’; razing whole villages and towns into the ground; and forcing the people to adopt their life-styles, values and political structures. What right do such people have after witnessing the implementation of such a wicked and brutal foreign policy with their own eyes – in South America, Africa, Palestine, Afghanistan and more recently in Iraq, from the various credible news sources – to even begin laying a criticism against Jihad.

Non-Muslims need to see the reality of their own governments and not be blinded the hysterical and deceitful propaganda that increasingly is aimed at Islam and its values.

Secondly, Muslims should demonstrate some of the rules that surround Jihad and state that offensively carrying the struggle against non-Islam does not permit Muslims to compel the local people to embrace Islam. This is because Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala) does not allow compulsion:

لاَ إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ

"There is no compulsion in deen" (tmq)

Likewise Islam does not allow the exploitation, plundering, razing and desecration of places of worship, people’s homes and honour – when Jihad is carried offensively. Rather Jihad is carried offensively to cleanse the earth from the kufr, with the implementation of Islam as a system thus liberating man from the rule of man. The history of the Islamic conquests, the presence of Christians and Jews, who lived in security and prosperity under the Islamic State and the safe-haven that the Islamic authority provided for people savaged by the forefathers of the modern colonialists is sufficient proof for this.

On the horizon, as the struggle between Iman and kufr increases day by day – it is imperative for the Muslims to hold to the truth of Islam, its rules and not permit the dilution of its intellectual wealth – a wealth which soon will transform the darkness of colonial rule to the mercy and shade of the Islamic authority, Al-Khilafah, by Allah (Subhanna Wa Ta'ala's) permission.

Source

http://islamicsystem.blogspot.com/2008/05/clarifying-meaning-of-jihad.html
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O Israel
The LORD bless you and keep you;
The LORD make His face to shine upon you and be gracious to you;
The LORD lift up His countenance upon you and give you peace.

Asymmetric Warfare It’s not just for the “Other Guys”

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