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Old 08-30-2011, 03:57 AM
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Lightbulb Who are the REAL Palestinians?

Who are the REAL Palestinians?


WE are! We the Jews are the REAL Palestinians!

Is this historically correct? Well the Jews conquered the land of Israel that was given to them by Divine right. They took over from the Canaanites and other tribes who had lived there before but, instead of wiping them out, as some accounts would have it, the Jews completely absorbed those peoples.This is evidenced by the many pagan rites and rituals that were practiced in the land throughout the period of the two kingdoms. And so when the Assyrians and Babylonians came along, all they found was Jews because Canaanites and others all became part of the Jewish people. And so, in addition to Divine mandate we have the argument that we are the indigenous people of the land. Then, as the book of Kings shows, the Assyrians settled the land of Israel with all manners of Gentile peoples from southern Turkey, northern Syria, and Lebanon. These peoples converted to a rudimentary form of Judaism, which also permitted pagan rites, but over time it became more monotheistic. These people became known as Samaritans and they vied with the Jews for control of the land much as the newcomers we call Palestinians do today. Then the Greeks took over the land and settled it with Hellenized Syrians and Egyptians. And so now we had Jews, Greeks, and Samaritans all living in the land.

Then came the Romans who destroyed Jewish sovereignty but even after they did the composition of the land stayed the same - Jews, Greeks, and Samaritans. Then the Roman Empire became Christian and they imposed Christianity on the empire. The entire Greek community, the majority of the Samaritans, and a few Jews converted to Christianity.
Then came the Arabs who took the land away from the Romans (Called Byzantine by this time.) and they imposed the Jiziya and Kharaj tax. This caused most of the Greeks and almost all of the remaining Samaritans (A tiny remnant has persisted to this day.) to convert to Islam and to intermarry with the Arab newcomers. The identity of these people switched from Greek to Arab. This happened for the Arab Christians too though they retained their Christianity. But the Jews did not see themselves as Arab because the element of Jewish nationhood is an integral part of our religion whilst Islam and Christianity are religions but not nations as well.

Then the Arab Empire crumbled into separate sultanates that also crumbled and along came invaders of all types including the Mongols.
But the Mongols were driven back by the Mamelukes who took over the land.

Then the Seljuks who were conquered by the Crusaders conquered the Mamelukes. The Crusaders converted many Arabs to Christianity and though they decimated the Jewish community, small Jewish communities remained. Then the Crusaders were ousted by the Ottomans who came to a ruined land torn apart by wars and invasions and they set up a system of serfdom which caused the Arab fellahin or peasants to sink into ever greater debts. This caused deforestation to occur as peasants sought to pay debts and herds increased beyond the capacity of the land to support them. All this caused the topsoil to wash away. And the land became barren and denuded. Without watersheds the water all flowed into the valleys and depressions creating swamps (There had always been some swamps but not THIS many.). The swamps bred typhus and malaria, which spread to the people and because of all forces the population of the land of Israel, from the 1500s to the 1830s declined.

But the Jewish population did not because the Jews did not own any land and did not have to pay the terrible taxes. The Jews all lived in the larger towns where they were small shopkeepers and scholars and lived a meager life supported by money from throughout the Jewish Diaspora. In fact the Jewish community increased as there were successive waves of immigration such as the immigration of 300 French and English rabbis in the 1200s, the immigration of refugees from Islamic persecutions in Morocco in the late 1200s, many exiles from Spain and Portugal in the 1500s, Yemenite Jews in the 1600s, Hassidic Jews from Poland in the 1700s, Mitnagdim Jews from Lithuania in the early 1800s, and smaller Sephardic movements at the same time.

Then in the 1830s a war between Egypt and the Ottomans brought large numbers of Egyptian soldiers to Palestine where they were given land. These Egyptians established many towns in the Galilee and the Judean Hills.

Then Turks settled in Jaffa conducting business. The Ottomans brought in many thousands of Syrian and Lebanese workers to build the railroads. Refugees from a failed revolution against France in Iraq, Muslim refugees from Russia, Kurds, and Bosnians settled in Israel too.
Then came the Zionists and they employed the fellahin. Therefore many tens of thousands of Arabs poured into Israel from Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt looking for work. This immigration continued throughout the British period unabated even as the British sharply restricted Jewish immigration. Then after the war of independence Jews poured in to their homeland that they had been attached to and had longed for throughout the ages and to which they were entitled by Divine right.
SO WHO ARE THE REAL PALESTINIANS? A hybrid mixture of Syrian, Lebanese, Iraqi, and Egyptian people with strong mixes of Kurds, Circassian, Algerian, Bosnians, and Arabian, as well as a bit of remnant old blood from the mixed Arab, Greek, and Samaritan? A mish mash of people with no language, identity, or culture of their own that has no historical ties apart from migrations, to this particular land, and certainly no religious ties? A people who can claim no divine deed?

Or is it a people who have had a connection with the land, a yearning for the land and a love for the land for over 2,000 years? A people with Divine deed to the land? A people in whose very veins the blood of the land's aboriginal and other similar populations runs? And not just ANY people but the VERY people who gave the world democracy, justice, and monotheism and who liberated the human mind from the narrow confines of idolatry, a people who has been at the forefront of civilization and all liberating movements (as well as some not so liberating, but hey we all make mistakes don't we?) in the history of the world?

Which is it? WHO are the real Palestinians? WE ARE. THE JEWS ARE THE PALESTINIANS AND ENTITLED TO THE ENTIRE LAND. The hybrids who we often refer to as Palestinians may stay and live with us if they agree to live by our laws and to be loyal citizens and if they do NOTHING to threaten the hegemony of the true Palestinians to Palestine. They may have complete freedom of movement, religion, economy, and all the benefits of living in the state of the true Palestinians. But any of them who choose to threaten the hegemony of the true Palestinians over Palestine may go elsewhere. Indeed, the true Palestinians have graciously provided for any hybrids that want to live in a hybrid state. It is called Jordan, and as a tribute to the generosity of the true Palestinians it is a much larger

piece of Palestine than the piece we keep for ourselves. The true Palestinians is the ONLY people entitled to this land though. And it is only our generosity that keeps us from taking Jordan, which is also rightfully, ours.

WE ARE THE TRUE PALESTINIANS. AND WE HAVE NOTHING TO APOLOGIZE FOR!



Britain and the Jewish National Home:
Pledges and Border Changes, 1917-1923

His Majesty's Government views with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, if being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country

The Balfour Declaration
2 Nov 1917

We Arabs, especially the educated among us, look with deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement....We will wish the Jews a hearty welcome home....We are working together for a reformed and revised Near East, and our two movements complement one another. The movement is national and not imperialistic. There is room in Syria for us both. Indeed, I think that neither can be successful without the other

The Emir to Felix Frankfurter
3 March 1915

If, as may well happen, there should be created in our own lifetime by the banks of the Jordan a Jewish State under the protection of the British Crown which might comprise three of four millions of Jews, an event will have occurred in the history of the world which would form every point of view be beneficial, and would be especially in harmony with the truest interests of the British Empire
Winston Churchill

Illustrated Sunday Herald
8 Feb 1920



http://www.shofar.de/palestinians-e.html
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Last edited by New Ron; 08-30-2011 at 04:00 AM..
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Old 08-30-2011, 07:04 AM
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It is obvious to any student of history that Israel has legitimately been the land of the Jewish people, right since the ending of Stone Age when civilised societies first started emerging. No evidence of course, is enough for those who fall for unsubstantiated propaganda and are dumb enough to completely disregard history.
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Old 08-30-2011, 08:38 AM
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Originally Posted by Knaur View Post
It is obvious to any student of history that Israel has legitimately been the land of the Jewish people, right since the ending of Stone Age when civilised societies first started emerging. No evidence of course, is enough for those who fall for unsubstantiated propaganda and are dumb enough to completely disregard history.
I hear you! There are those who wish to close their ears to the truth, no matter what we do to try and show them the truth!
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"If the Arabs put down their weapons today, there would be no more violence.. If the Jews put down their weapons today, there would be no more Israel."
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Old 08-30-2011, 11:42 AM
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you are right New Ron! no matter how real the connection the Jews have to the land, no matter how legal is their claim there will always be those that want the jews out of their homeland!! they are called God haters because him who hates God drives their fanaticism!! it is the evil one that drives them regardless of what lies they believe!


prior to 1953 (the year arafat took control of the PLO) no arab was classed as a palestinian only Jews. it was a ploy of arafat to delegitimise the Jews claim to the land, he claimed the arabs were related to the philistines that were killed off about 2 thousand years ago. he then claimed they were related to the jebusites the original owners of Jerusalem but they died out even further back in history! so despite these rabid claims the politicians have believed every word that spewed out of that fools mouth!
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Old 08-30-2011, 02:50 PM
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Great post New Ron!
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Old 08-30-2011, 11:43 PM
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New Ron, this among other things is why they dont and wont teach history in public schools anymore. I for one dont care about what was said or done back then by the UK. The only thing I need to know is that people who call themselves palestenians murder kids, then when they get their own tract of land they used to to commit acts of war against a neighbor community. What the world does not realize is that when they reward those acts of war and terrorism they encourage the islamists to use those exact same tactics elsewhere. The islamists claim the whole world, Israel is just the first stepping stone.
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Old 08-31-2011, 04:57 PM
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" ... The islamists claim the whole world, Israel is just the first stepping stone.
Not if Adonai has any input, and since Israel is the apple of His eye, El ha-Gibbor will defend Israel against all their enemies as He has done since 1948 when Israel became a 'nation in a day,' so to speak. Maybe that's why the US service academies don't study any of Israel's victories since 1948; because their victories don't make sense militarily. Islamists may claim anything that they want, but their imp demon allah will not provide!!!
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Old 09-01-2011, 01:11 PM
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well said desertscout!
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Old 09-22-2011, 05:58 AM
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Not if Adonai has any input, and since Israel is the apple of His eye, El ha-Gibbor will defend Israel against all their enemies as He has done since 1948 when Israel became a 'nation in a day,' so to speak. Maybe that's why the US service academies don't study any of Israel's victories since 1948; because their victories don't make sense militarily. Islamists may claim anything that they want, but their imp demon allah will not provide!!!

I would be surprised if they did not study any of the Israeli conflicts. However America uses vastly different tactics. America mans its military differently and Americans would not fight with the same vigor that Israelis do unless someone was invading America directly, in which case we would go cucu for coocoo puffs on the invading army and their host country.
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Old 09-26-2011, 07:39 PM
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Who's the Philistines that the Israel fought them during the biblical times? Where are they now?
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Old 09-26-2011, 07:55 PM
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Who's the Philistines that the Israel fought them during the biblical times? Where are they now?




More Facts on the Myth of "The Palestinian People"




My May 28th article, “Five Simple Truths about the Mideast Conflict,” elicited some passionate responses from those on both sides of the debate, with the first point in particular proving to be the most controversial: “There is no such thing as a historic ‘Palestinian people” living in the Middle East.’”

Let’s unpack two of the most common responses to that assertion, separating myth from fact. Of course, we know that there are several million people living in the West Bank and Gaza who identify as Palestinians today, and regardless of their historic pedigree, they are human beings with real needs. But when a misleading “history” is presented so as to delegitimize Jewish claims to the Land, the falsehoods must be exposed.

Myth #1. The modern Palestinians can trace their lineage back to the ancient Philistines, who were living in the land of Canaan (= Palestine) long before the Israelites had arrived on the scene.

This is completely false as to any lineal or ethnic connection between modern Palestinians and ancient Philistines.

First, the Philistines were Aegean (or Cypriot) sea peoples who migrated to the southern coast of Israel/Canaan in the 12th century BC. It is unclear what relationship they bear with the Philistines who are mentioned in Genesis, hundreds of years earlier. In short, they were not a Semitic people, as the Israelites and Arabs were. Second, from the 8th-5th centuries BC, they were crushed or ruled by the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians, ultimately being absorbed by these populations and entirely disappearing from history. In other words, there was a distinct, end of the line for the Philistines roughly 2,500 years ago.

Third, six hundred years after the extinction of the Philistines, and after putting down a Jewish revolt, the Romans changed the name of Judea to Palaestina (in Latin) in order to discourage Jewish patriotism. So, there is absolutely no lineal or ethnic connection between the (earlier) Philistine people and the (later) land called Palestine. In fact, the Philistines had previously lived in the western part of the country, on the Mediterranean coast, whereas Palestine originally referred to the eastern part of the country, on the West Bank of the Jordan river.

Fourth, some Muslim leaders have claimed that there was a continuous Arab presence in Palestine dating back to Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. But this dubious claim, even if true , would still mean that the continuous Jewish presence in the land predated the first major Arab presence by at least 2,000 years, and it would also underscore the fact that there is no connection between the later Arabs and the earlier (extinct) Philistines.

Myth # 2. The whole argument about there being no historic, “Palestinian people” is meaningless, since there’s is no such thing as a historic Iraqi people either. Borders were artificially created after World War I.”

This is false, as to the overall argument and only partially true about the artificial borders.

Anyone who knows the history of the modern Middle East will recognize the names of nation-states that did not exist as such before (such as United Arab Emirates). But not all national identities in the Middle East are of recent origin.

There has certainly been an ancient, historic Egyptian people in the region, to the south of Israel, and an ancient, historic Syrian-Lebanese people, to the north of Israel, while the Iraqi people often traced their heritage back to the ancient kings of Babylon as well as to the golden age of Islam that flourished in their region 700 years ago. In contrast, the Arabs living in Palestine had no such national identity because they had no such ancient, historic roots, not to mention the fact that there were dozens of other (non-Arab) peoples living in Palestine, some of whom had ruled the region for centuries.

In the oft-quoted words of the celebrated Arab-American historian and Princeton University professor, Philip Hitti, testifying before the Anglo-American Committee in 1946, “There is no such thing as ‘Palestine’ in history, absolutely not.” And so, if there was no “Palestine” in the pre-1948 Arab consciousness, there was no Palestinian people. The only people living in Palestine who traced their pedigree back to ancient, biblical times and who awaited the restoration of their ancient homeland were the Jewish people.

But why bother with facts? The old myths and lies are so much more effective.






Dagon
Dagon Was the Chief God of the Philistines
From Judd Burton


http://www.bga.nl/en/articles/filist1.html
The Philistines I

Origins

Introduction
The Philistines figure prominently in the Old Testament, above all as Israel's worst enemy. Their presence in southern Canaan in the days of the last judges and the first kings was a serious threat to the southernmost Israelite tribes in particular. After the defeats they suffered against David, the Philistines saw their powerful position weaken considerably, however.

In the past twenty years much has been written about the Philistines, primarily on account of the results of recent excavations in Ashdod, Ekron, and Ashkelon, well-known cities which together with Gath and Gaza constituted the Philistine Pentapolis.1 The excavations have produced new interpretations of literary sources describing the period when the Philistines were a strong military nation, as well as a new understanding of their culture, their origins, and their presence in Canaan and Egypt.

This article will concentrate on the origins of the Philistine people. Their settlement in Canaan and their position among the Canaanites, Egyptians and Judeans will be the subjects of two further articles.

It may be said in general that the theories about the origins of the Philistines have not fundamentally changed in the course of time. The idea that the Philistines settled themselves during the mass migration of the 13th and 12th centuries B.C. and that they belonged to the 'Sea Peoples', as the invaders were named in Egyptian texts, is both found in recent and older literature.2 Recent excavations and views on literary sources have only completed and further underpinned the picture as far as the subject of this article is concerned.

The historical books of the Old Testament provide by far the most details about their origins.

The Old Testament
In the Old Testament the Philistines figured frequently during the period between judge Jephtah and the reign of king David. The Philistines constituted a threat to southern Israel and oppressed the Israelites notably during the days of judges Samson and Samuel. The main reason for their expansion was the superior quality of their weapons.3

In the days of king Saul (late 11th century B.C.) the positions of power kept changing, but it was only during the reign of king David - for some time a servant to Philistine king Achis - that the Philistines were thrown back, and even lost part of their territory. Afterwards David went so far as to incorporate many Philistine soldiers in his army.4 Until the Babylonian Captivity of Judah their role in history remained insignificant, and finally they disappeared altogether from the scene. The period of their greatest influence may be dated roughly between 1150 and 1000 B.C.

Nevertheless this was not the only period in which reference was made to the Philistines. They are also mentioned in the book of Genesis: first in the table of nations (Gen.10:14), as descendants of the Casluhites, and next, in Gen.21 and 26, as being ruled by king Abimelech of Gerar, with whom Abraham and Isaac came into contact.

Were these the same Philistines that threatened Judah seven centuries later? Probably not. The settlement of the Philistines in the 12th century B.C. is clearly reflected in the type of pottery and architecture of south-western Canaan and in the historical sources from that period, which indicate that many peoples from the North (the Sea Peoples, and among them the 'Peleset' or Philistines) invaded the region and even reached the very border of Egypt. Egyptian annals do not refer to the Philistines previous to this period. Archaeological evidence of continuous Philistine occupation of this region has not (yet?) been found.

Of course this does not solve the question about the real identity of the people referred to as Philistines. It is possible that trading posts from the Minoic culture existed along the coast of Canaan already in the days of the patriarchs. These posts and their occupants may have become forgotten, and their name may have been replaced by that of the Philistines, who lived in the vicinity in later days. This could also apply to Ex.13:17­18, where it is reported that the Israelites leaving Egypt were not led on the road through the Philistine country..... (but) by the desert road toward the Red Sea.5

Caphtor
The Old Testament also offers a clue as to the origins of the Philistines. In Jeremiah 47:4 they are named 'the remnant from the coasts of Caphtor', and Amos compares the exodus of Israel from Egypt with that of the Philistines 'from Caphtor'(Am.9:7)

The question remains what exactly is meant by 'Caphtor'? Usually it is identified with Kephtiu, which is known from Egyptian records, as well as from Ugarit and Mari.

Caphtor is generally taken as synonymous with Crete, but also with Cyprus and the southwest of Asia Minor. The Septuagint and other ancient translations of the Bible identify Caphtor with Cappadocia. The extensive literature on the subject can only be given here in summary.6

Crete
The oldest literature about the Philistines points to Crete as their original home. This idea is strengthened by the ancient name of the Philistine city of Gaza: Minoah; the same name was given to several trade stations started from Crete.7 It is furthermore known from the Odyssee that the island was inhabited around 1200 B.C. by a variety of peoples. An argument against Crete as the Philistines' homeland is the fact that iron is not found there at all and copper in no more than traces. Tin is absent as well.8 In their days the Philistines were known for their great skill at metal working, and they guarded their knowledge anxiously (1 Sam.13:19). This is hardly compatible with the available evidence that Kephtiu was a copper exporting country.

Cyprus
Cyprus is named as the homeland of the Philistines especially in recent literature. J. Strange points out that both Cyprus and the Philistines were familiar with metallurgy at a high level and that pottery from Cyprus strongly resembles pottery from Philistea (Mycenaean III C:1b). It is furthermore known from literary references that Cyprus, like Crete, was inhabited in the 13th and 12th centuries B.C. by a variety of
peoples.9 However, the many different names given to the island in the various cultures of that time make it very difficult to identify Cyprus as Caphtor.10

V. Karageorghis adds to the arguments in favour of Cyprus the evidence from excavations on the island (near Pyla and Maa): a mixed population (from Crete, Greece and Anatolia) appears to have lived here in fortified villages during 25 years. The inhabitants were wealthy, but clearly preferred a defendable place over a location that favoured trade and agriculture. After these 25 years both places were abandoned or burnt down. Maa was rebuilt by the conquerors who also manufactured type Myc. III C:1b pottery.11 Karageorghis moreover refers to Cypriotic myths about Greek heroes who founded cities on the island.12 Finally, Raban and Stieglitz showed that the architecture on the island was comparable with that of Philistea as far as the use of ashlars (large building blocks) was concerned.

Another argument in favour of Cyprus is a definite resemblance between Philistine and Cypriotic - Minoic writings from that period.13

The presence, though perhaps temporary, of Philistines in Cyprus or Crete is given wider perspective if the contemporary events in this part of the Mediterranean are also taken into consideration. Literary references and excavations from the Late Bronze period only demonstrate the great importance of such a widened perspective.

The Sea Peoples
It will be clear from the foregoing that a number of non-native peoples lived in Cyprus around 1200 B.C. and that the inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean apparently were exposed to danger. The reasons for this unstable situation, which lasted from c. 1300 to c. 1170 B.C., are still uncertain. Egyptian relief texts speak about 'Sea Peoples' invading the coasts of Canaan and Egypt from the North and destroying whole kingdoms. Possible reasons for the mass migrations of those days could be, e.g., famine in Greece and Anatolia, invasions of tribes from the Balkans, and earthquakes.14

Anyway, the collapse of the Hittite empire (shortly after 1200 B.C.), the fall of Troy (1185 B.C.), and the invasions into Egypt (c. 1207 and 1175 B.C.) were all part of a major catastrophe that pushed peoples from the North to the South and caused large devastations among Late Bronze (c. 1550-1200 B.C.) cultures. When the mass migrations came to a halt, Greece was left impoverished, while prosperous and highly developed cultures seemed to have moved to the South.15 The Philistines arrived in the south-west of Canaan in the 12th century B.C., and this marked the end of Egypt's domination over the region. Here too Myc. III C: 1b pottery is found after their arrival.

Egyptian reliefs in Medinet Habu tell us that the Peleset (Philistines) were involved in the second raid on Egypt, during the eighth year of Ramesses III (c. 1175 B.C.). It was apparently after these raids that the Philistines settled down in the south-west of Canaan.

Odysseus And Goliath
Homer's epic poems are now increasingly being taken to be serious historiography. As a result of this, more connections are found between the Greek heroes who after the fall of Troy wandered round the eastern Mediterranean, and the Philistines. The Greek heroes wandered about and ended up in Crete, Cyprus, Libya, and Egypt. The fight between these wandering troupes and the Egyptians is described in Odyssee XVII, 420-460, and XIV, 250-290, where the pirates - who came in from Crete - destroyed Egyptian farmland, killed men and carried off women and children. Foot-soldiers and war-chariots soon intervened how-ever, and took vengeance.

Stager points to similarities between Greek heroes like Achilles and Odysseus on the one hand and leading characters from the late Judges period, viz. Goliath, Jephtah and Samson, on the other. The same could perhaps be said of Shamgar, who put an end to an early invasion of Sea Peoples/Philistines by means of an ox goad (Jdg. 3:31). Prominent features are an enormous strength (Goliath, Samson), loneliness (Samson) and the typically Greek suit of armour (Goliath).16 The 'disastrous' decisions of Jephtah could perhaps be added here. Regardless of the way this relationship is interpreted, it can at least be concluded that the stories from the Greek heroic age and the Biblical history describing the period directly thereafter, viz. 1150-1000 B.C., show remarkable similarities.

The Hittites
The Hittite empire, like many Mycenaean-Greek city-states, went down in the period of the invasions of the Sea Peoples. In the foregoing the Philistines were mainly associated with Mediterranean islands and the Mycenean-Greek culture. In a different theory that is certainly worth mentioning, the Philistines are supposed to be of Hittite origin.17 This theory, which is proposed by M. Riemschneider, is based on the following facts:18

1) Jewish and Christian translations of the Bible from the second to fifth century A.D. render Capthor as Cappadocia, a province within the Hittite empire;

2) in 711 B.C. Sargon II used the name Hittites to indicate the inhabitants of the Philistine city of Ashdod;

3) just like the Philistines in Canaan, the Hittites in Anatolia had a monopoly on iron, which was carefully protected;

4) the Hittites called their kings 'judges' ('tarawanas'), as did the Philistines and the tribes of Israel;

5) the Philistine principal god Dagon is also a god of the Hittites: 'Dagan-zipas', and their second god Baal-Zebub is paralleled in the Hittite god 'Zababa' of 'Ziparwa';

6) the types of pottery we call Philistine are found every-
where along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, and thus can hardly be used as evidence.19

Summary
The Philistines are viewed as participants in the great migration of the period round 1200 B.C., which caused the fall of so many empires. Belonging to the Sea Peoples, they came from the North and, possibly through Crete or (much more likely) Cyprus, went to the South, where they caused devastation but also established a new culture.20 Philistine pottery, architecture, military power, and certain similarities with Homer's Greek heroes together point to Mycenaean Greece as their homeland.21 Other facts however strongly suggest a Hittite origin: their gods, their king-judges, and ancient translations of the Bible which render Caphtor as Cappadocia. Nonetheless the latter theory finds little support in recent literature.

Anyway, the old theories about the origins of the Philistines have remained broadly unchanged, while new excavations and reinterpretations of ancient literary references have produced new evidence or brought nuance in existing views.
drs. J. Bosland


NOTES
1. T. Dothan, Ekron of the Philistines, BAR 16, 1990, 1, p. 26-36 and T. Dothan, What we know about the Philistines, BAR 8, 1982, p. 4, 20-44.
2. R. Kittel, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, II, Gotha 1922, p. 86-87 and A.R. Burn, Minoans, Philistines and Greek, 1400-900 B.C., London 1930, p. 145-165.
3. The struggle between Philistines and Israelites is often viewed as a struggle between iron and bronze. It was not until King David that the Israelites manufactured iron weapons.
4. Various heroes of David were Philistines. So e.g. Benaiah and the Kerethites and Pelethites, David's body-guards (2 Sam. 15:18).
5. C.C. Stavleu puts forward the view that the Philistines from the patriarchal time and those from the later days of the judges an kings belonged to the same people. Their absence from, e.g., Egyptian literature is understandable in view of their very small size as a people; C.C. Stavleu, De Filistijnen in het boek Genesis, in: Verkenningen in Genesis, Kampen 1986, p. 103-107.
6. A similar problem is presented by the very term Philistines. J. Strange argues that the Israelites called all Sea Peoples Philistines, whereas in Cyprus the Tjeker and Dananoi were the names remembered; J. Strange, Capthor/Keftiu. A new Investigation, Leiden 1980, p. 165.
7. Castleden, Minoans, Life in Bronze Age Crete, London 1990, p. 122.
8. J. Strange, op. cit., p.114
9. V. Karageorghis, Exploring Philistine Origins on the Island of Cyprus, BAR 10, 1984, p. 2, 28.
10. J. Strange, op. cit. p. 167.
11. V. Karageorghis, op. cit., p.18-27.
12. V. Karageorghis, op. cit., p.27.
13. A. Raban and R.R. Stieglitz, The Sea Peoples and their Contributions to Civilisation, BAR 17, 1991, 6, p. 34-42, 91-92.
14. J. van Gestel, Oude Beschavingen. De Egeïsche wereld, Amsterdam 1993, p.141-143.
15. V. Karageorghis, op. cit., p. 27-28.
16. L.E. Stager, When Canaanites and Philistines ruled Ashkelon, BAR 17, 1991, p. 40-42.
17. M. Riemschneider, Die Herkunft der Philister, Acta Antiqua IV, 1956, p. 17-29.
18. Septuagint, Vulgata, Pe****a and Targum; M. Riemschneider, op. cit. p. 20.
19. It is not clear whether M. Riemschneider is referring to type Myc. III C:1b that was found in massive quantities in Philistine cities well after the appearance of her article.
20. The great significance of the Philistines is especially pointed out by Karageorghis, op. cit., and Raban and Stielitz, op. cit. The Philistines exceeded the surrounding nations in their high cultural level. Their high standard of living and novel technology were taken over later by Israel and the Phoenicians (Raban and Stieglitz, op. cit., p. 42).
21. An inscription that was recently found in Ekron may provide evidence that Achis, a Philistine king in the days of David, was named after Anchises, the father of Aeneas from the Ilias. See: S. Gitin, T. Dothan and J. Naveh, A Royal Dedicatory Inscription from Ekron, Israel Exploration Journal 47, 1997, 1/2, p. 1-16.

http://www.bga.nl/en/articles/filist1.html



Who Were the Philistines?

by Richard T. Ritenbaugh
Forerunner, "Prophecy Watch," November 2006
http://www.cgg.org/index.cfm/fuseact...#ixzz1Z5fLyTJL


To anyone other than a Bible student, the Philistines are merely a long-forgotten people, the subject of old, dusty volumes of equally dry and irrelevant history. Surprisingly, even the dictionary contains little useful information on them. Webster's Dictionary provides a typical definition: "a native or inhabitant of ancient Philistia," an explanation—if one can call it that—that violates a primary rule of thumb of lexicography, "Avoid defining a word by referencing itself." It is like defining a dog as "an animal with dog-like qualities"—essentially useless, especially if one has never seen a dog.
Subsequent definitions of Philistine prove equally futile: "a person who is guided by materialism and is usually disdainful of intellectual or artistic values" and "one uninformed in a special area of knowledge." Evidently, Philistine has acquired these meanings from association with its occasional biblical adjective "uncircumcised" (see I Samuel 17:26, 36). While David meant to suggest a man who had no relationship with God, a foreigner, generations of Bible readers have understood it to mean a brutish, unrefined person, as they imagine Goliath to have been.

So much for the helpfulness of dictionaries. They leave us still hungering for answers to the question, "Who were the Philistines?" This question, while not vital to our salvation, begs an answer, as the people called Philistines in Scripture had a great impact on biblical history. From the days of Abraham to the Assyrian conquest of the northern kingdom of Israel, the Philistines were at times friends, allies, deadly enemies, vassals, and rivals of God's people, but never a people their leaders could ignore.

For Bible students in the twenty-first century, knowing who the Philistines were is important in grasping the lessons in the stories of Abraham and Isaac, Samson, Samuel, Saul, and David, in which they sometimes played major roles. Though they were bit players in later history, their name arises in the writings of the prophets, some of them having end-time implications. With Jesus' admonition in mind to live by every word of God (Matthew 4:4; Luke 4:4), finding out about the Philistines becomes more crucial.

Aegean Origins
Unexpectedly, the Philistines first appear in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10:13-14: "Mizraim [a son of Ham] begot Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, and Casluhim (from whom came the Philistines [Philistim, KJV] and Caphtorim)."1 Mizraim is the Hebrew word that is commonly translated as "Egypt," thus the Philistines are ethnically related to the Egyptians.

However, note that the Casluhim are divided into the Philistines and Caphtorim (in fact, the Philistines are frequently identified with Caphtor, the Hebrew name for at least the island of Crete and perhaps for the whole Aegean region; see Amos 9:7; Jeremiah 47:4). This indicates that their origins lie in the area of Crete, western Asia Minor, and the Aegean Sea, and modern archeology bears this out. For instance, Philistine pottery resembles that of the Minoan and Mycenaean (Homeric Greek) civilizations to the point that a material connection is beyond question. Other substantial links to the area include early Greek weapons, armor, dress, burial methods, military tactics, government, religion, etc.

How did these Aegean people end up settling in southwestern Canaan? The story is a long one, beginning in the days of Abraham. Being a restless, warlike, trading people, the Philistines frequently attempted to expand their influence, first through setting up trading colonies in distant lands and then by force of arms, if necessary. Genesis 21:34 records, "Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days," referring to the area around the town of Gerar, where Abimelech2 was king (see Genesis 20). This means that by the early nineteenth century bc, at least a small colony of Philistines had already gained a foothold in the land of Canaan.

After Isaac's similar experience with them, they are next mentioned in passing in Exodus 13:17:
Then it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, "Lest perhaps the people change their minds when they see war, and return to Egypt."
The "way of the land of the Philistines" describes a small portion of the route later known as the Via Maris, "the Way of the Sea." This coastal road connected the Nile Delta region with Canaan, Syria, and beyond that to Mesopotamia. Although the naming of this portion of the road after the Philistines may be a slight anachronism (perhaps a later emendation), Philistines already lived along its southern course in Canaan.

However, more significant is the Philistines' connection with war. Evidently, the people who lived along that road were a hostile group, easily provoked into armed conflict, and at the time of the Exodus, on a war footing. The fledgling nation of Israel, God knew, was not yet prepared to fight any people as aggressive as the Philistines, no matter what their numbers were at the time.

Nevertheless, this passing mention in Exodus 13 alludes to the fact that the Philistine presence in southern Canaan had not remained static. From a trading outpost in Gerar, they had expanded in the intervening four centuries to control a large area. Perhaps they were not the most populous of the ethnic groups there, but they were certainly the dominant one. It is thought that their numbers were steadily increased by new colonists from their homeland in the Aegean. In addition, it seems to have been a conscious policy to assimilate to a large degree with the native population, which would include intermarriage3 and adoption of local deities. In this way a minority people could quickly rise to prominence.

Sea Peoples
Despite their early dominance, the bulk of the Philistine people did not migrate to coastal Canaan for another nearly two and a half centuries. What caused the main body of Sea Peoples4—as they are known to historians—to cross the Mediterranean is not entirely known. Perhaps the migration of Central European peoples into the Aegean region dislodged them, or maybe the early throes of Mycenaean decline played a part. Some have even suggested a terrible famine or a volcanic eruption as reasons for their relocation. Whatever the cause, the annals of the time record that the Sea Peoples were strong enough to overwhelm the Hittite Empire in Asia Minor, as well as other nations down the Mediterranean coast. Not content with these conquests, they set out to invade Egypt between the reigns of Pharaohs Merneptah (c. 1224-1216 bc) and Rameses III (c. 1174-1144 bc).

One massive sea battle in the Nile Delta region during the reign of Rameses III put an end to the Sea Peoples' advance. Though normally outmatched on water, Pharaoh won a decisive victory, capturing large numbers of Sea Peoples. As new vassals of Egypt, they were placed in Egyptian fortified cities up the coast in southwestern Canaan where small Philistine colonies already existed, and many of them—particularly those of the Peleset tribe—settled permanently in the area. They formed a league of five major cities (a Pentapolis): Gaza,5 Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath, each of which was ruled by a "lord" (Hebrew seren, which is perhaps better rendered as "tyrant," a Greek concept).

Now being the majority people in the area, it did not take the Philistines long to ignore Egyptian overrule (Egypt had been weakened and exhausted by its conflict with the Sea Peoples) and to carve out their own nation between the desert buffer of Sinai and the weak, disunited, hill-country Israelite tribes. Their rise to power began in the early- to mid-twelfth century BC (for instance, the Philistines conquered Ashkelon in about 1175 bc), contemporaneous with the end of Deborah's judgeship and the length of Gideon's. By the days of Jephthah, Samson, and Samuel in the early eleventh century, the Philistines dominated most of the land of Canaan from Sinai to Galilee, especially in the areas closer to the coast.

A key to their dominance lay in their more advanced material culture. While the Israelites and Canaanites of the highlands still practiced Bronze Age skills, the Philistines had advanced to an Iron Age culture, making them nearly invincible on the battlefield. I Samuel 13:19-22 informs us:
Now there was no blacksmith to be found throughout all the land of Israel, for the Philistines said, "Lest the Hebrews make swords or spears." But all the Israelites would go down to the Philistines to sharpen each man's plowshare, his mattock, his ax, and his sickle; and the charge for sharpening was a pim [two-thirds of a shekel, an exorbitant price] for the plowshares, the mattocks, the forks, and the axes, and to set the points of the goads. So it came about, on the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people who were with Saul and Jonathan. But they were found with Saul and Jonathan his son.
Saul could muster only two swords among six hundred men (see verse 15)! Evidently, most of his soldiers fought with axes, mattocks, ox goads, sickles, or sharpened sticks. Recall that Samson never used a normal weapon either, resorting to the jawbone of a donkey or his bare hands. The Philistine army, however, was fully outfitted with the advanced weaponry of the day:
So the Lord was with Judah. And they drove out the inhabitants of the mountains, but they could not drive out the inhabitants of the lowland [the Philistines and Canaanites there], because they had chariots of iron. (Judges 1:19)

[Goliath] had a bronze helmet on his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail. . . . And he had bronze greaves on his legs and a bronze javelin was between his shoulders. Now the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam, and his iron spearhead weighed six hundred shekels; and a shield-bearer went before him. (I Samuel 17:5-7)

Later, the account mentions that Goliath also carried a sword (verse 51). David, of course, having refused Saul's armor and sword because he was untrained in them, carried only "his staff in his hand; . . . five smooth stones from the brook, and . . . his sling" (verse 40). David's severe disadvantage in arms was typical for an Israelite before the might of the Philistines.

Philistine Culture
While a fair amount is known about the Philistines from textual sources, only recently have archeological finds begun to flesh out Philistine culture. For instance, relatively little is known about the original Philistine language except that, upon arriving in Canaan, it seems they quickly adopted the Semitic language of the area while retaining words from their original Indo-European tongue, including personal names. In November 2005, a small pottery shard bearing an inscription containing two names linguistically resembling "Goliath" was found in the ruins of Gath. There is no evidence that it refers to the biblical Goliath, but it confirms the general historicity of the story in I Samuel 17.

The artifacts being dug up from the ruins of Philistine cities reveal that Philistine culture was as advanced as their weaponry. Their art was refined, being heavily influenced by typically Mycenaean motifs with Egyptian and later Canaanite styles added to their repertoire. While its roof may not have been redundantly supported (see Judges 16:23-30), their Temple of Dagon in Gaza—similar in design to Cretan architecture—supported about three thousand people on its roof, making it an imposing edifice. The evidence found in the tells of the Pentapolis bears out that, for the time, the Philistines built large, planned cities complete with fortresses, palaces, temples, and markets, all of which were surrounded by thirteen-feet-thick walls.

Anciently, the Philistines were also renowned for both their production and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Numerous finds have exposed a well-managed spirits industry, from breweries and wineries to retail outlets that advertised beer, wine, and strong drink. Among the most numerous artifacts unearthed from Philistine ruins are beer mugs and wine craters (large drinking bowls). The story of Samson's wedding feast alludes to the Philistine practice of engaging in weeklong drinking parties, as the Hebrew word misteh, translated as "feast" in Judges 14:10, indicates a "drinking feast."

From the Old Testament, we find that the principal deity of the Philistines was Dagon (Judges 16:23; I Samuel 5:2-7). This deity, either a god of fish or of grain (the root dg can represent either idea, depending on the vowel used), was worshipped at least in the temples of Gaza, Ashdod, and Beth-shan. II Kings 1:1-6 records that at Ekron the god Baal-Zebub was venerated. There is thought to be some connection between these gods and similar ones worshipped by the Hittites, also a Hamitic people, who lived in Anatolia (Asia Minor). Over time, however, the Philistine deities began to resemble their Canaanite counterparts, though the Philistines retained a distinctive worship ritual.

Judges 16:23-24 contains snatches of a song sung in the Temple of Dagon at Gaza celebrating the successful capture of Samson. Cultic artifacts found at Ashdod suggest music played a prominent role in Philistine worship, both singing and instrumental music, particularly the use of the lyre. This same passage also shows a Philistine penchant for performance art and entertainment (verse 25), another interest attributed to the Greeks.

Unlike the common belief, the Philistines were not unsophisticated, uncultured brutes, but advanced, refined people. In fact, for several generations their culture was years ahead of Israel's, a disparity they maintained through their martial superiority. Nevertheless, their cosmopolitan sophistication could not hide their underlying uncircumcision in God's eyes; they were a foreign people in the land God had promised to Abraham's descendants. Eventually, through His intervention, the Israelites under David overcame the Philistine's might and advanced culture, making Israel the dominant force in the region.

Philistia in Prophecy
Prophetically, the Philistines are mentioned several times in both the Major and Minor Prophets. The sense of many of these passages is that, despite being put under tribute by David, the Philistines were not absorbed by Israel but remained a distinct people beyond the fall of both Israel and Judah. In fact, Assyrian records list the Philistines separately from Israel during the time of the latter's fall in the late eighth century bc. Further, these passages suggest that the Philistines are a distinct people at the time of the end.

For example, Isaiah 11:11-14 is a prophecy of the Day of the Lord and the regathering of Israel to the Promised Land, an event known as the Second Exodus. Isaiah prophesies that the reunited Israelites will overwhelm the end-time Philistines:
It shall come to pass in that day that the Lord shall set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people who are left, from Assyria and Egypt, . . . and the islands of the sea. He will set up a banner for the nations, and will assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. . . . [T]hey shall fly down upon the shoulder of the Philistines toward the west. . . . (see also Isaiah 14:28-31)
Jeremiah (Jeremiah 47:1-7), Ezekiel (Ezekiel 25:15-17), Joel (Joel 3:4-5), Amos (Amos 1:6-8), Obadiah (Obadiah 19), Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:4-7) and Zechariah (Zechariah 9:5-8) also make proclamations of destruction against the Philistine people. Ezekiel's is typical:
Thus says the Lord God: "Because the Philistines dealt vengefully and took vengeance with a spiteful heart, to destroy because of the old hatred," therefore thus says the Lord God: "I will stretch out My hand against the Philistines, and I will cut off the Cherethites and destroy the remnant of the seacoast. I will execute great vengeance on them with furious rebukes; and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I lay My vengeance upon them."
All of these prophecies were anciently fulfilled, but end-time fulfillments cannot be ruled out. Isaiah's prophecy hints that ultimately, God will deploy Israel to punish the Philistines. These prophecies highlight the Philistines' treachery in taking Israelites captive and selling them to Edom as slaves, as well as their long-held, smoldering, spiteful hatred that caused them to take vengeance on Israel for old defeats. From evidence like this, the speculation that the modern inhabitants of the Gaza Strip descend from the ancient Philistines takes on greater credence.

Joel also mentions a further reason: "Because you have taken My silver and My gold, and have carried into your temples My prized possessions" (Joel 3:5). Evidently, the Philistines' capture of the ark in the time of Eli (I Samuel 4:10-11; 5:1—7:1), as well as other plunderings of Israel and Judah, rankled God, and He is determined to repay them for their sacrilege.

While modern humanity has essentially forgotten the real people of Philistia, God certainly has not, and neither should His people. Far from being uncultured rabble, the Philistines were refugees of the great Minoan/Mycenaean civilization, prepared by God to be a thorn in Israel's side for many generations. In the historic conflicts between these two very different peoples, we can unearth many lessons that we can apply on our Christian walk to the Kingdom of God.

Endnotes
1 The Hebrew masculine suffix —im, along with its feminine counterpart, -oth, turn a root word into a plural. These names, then, identify peoples rather than individuals, although most of them probably contain the name of a forefather. For instance, Ludim probably means "the people of Lud," the nation history calls "Lydians."

2 Abimelech is not, as is often supposed, a proper name but a title. It means "my father is king," implying the right of the bearer to rule through dynastic succession, or "father-king," suggesting that the ruler is father to his people. The Abimelech in Isaac's story (Genesis 26); the would-be king Abimelech, son of Gideon (Judges 9); and the Abimelech before whom David feigned madness (see Psalm 34:1; called Achish in I Samuel 21:10-15) are all different men from Abraham's acquaintance.
3 The native Canaanites were a related people (see Genesis 10:6-20).

4 Several tribes composed the Sea Peoples: the Peleset, Tjekker, Shekelesh, Denyen, and Weshesh, among others. The Egyptians called the Peleset prst (in Egyptian hieroglyphs, r is often interchanged with l), which is very similar to their Hebrew name, pelistîm. The Tjekker settled in and around the northern Canaanite city of Dor, while the Denyen may have eventually settled in Cyprus. The Shekelesh and the Weshesh were probably absorbed into Egypt, although some scholars believe some of the Shekelesh found their way to Sicily.

5 Interestingly, Gaza's original name was Minoah, very similar to that of the ancient Aegean civilization.

Read more: http://www.cgg.org/index.cfm/fuseact...#ixzz1Z5fLyTJL




Philistines (Philistia) in the Gaza Strip
http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Ph...Philistia.html




Overview: The Philistines were people who lived in Canaan along the Mediterranean coast at the time the Israelites sought to occupy the land. They were centered in five cities called the Philistine Pentapolis: Ashkelon Ashdod Ekron Gath and Gaza ...

Excerpt: Amos 1:6–8 Thus says the Lord: For three transgressions of Gaza and for four I will not revoke the punishment ... I will cut off the inhabitants from Ashdod and the one who holds the scepter from Ashkelon; I will turn my hand against Ekron and the remnant of the Philistines shall perish says the Lord God ...

(See *2 Below)
Prologue: The Philistines are among the most maligned peoples of ancient history. The Bible characterized them as cunning pagan warmongers; the ancient Egyptians as pirates and marauders ... One of the Aegean Sea Peoples who settled on the southern coast of Canaan at the end of the twelfth century BC -- they entered history as the main adversaries of the Israelites
(See *1 Below) ...

The two erstwhile major powers at the time (Egypt and the Hittites) were politically weak and militarily impotent and the Sea Peoples -- among them the Philistines -- exploited this power vacuum by invading areas previously subject to Egyptian and Hittite rule. This confederation of tribes included also the Tjekker –- Sheklesh –- Denyen -– and Weshesh. In wave after wave of land and sea assaults they attacked Syria –- Palestine -– and even Egypt. Ramesses III defeated the invaders at his doorstep but was unable to stop them from subsequently settling on the southern coast of Palestine. There they developed into an independent political entity of major importance and constituted a threat to the disunited Canaannite city-states (See ibid).

Bibliography and Online Links
(*1) People of the Sea by Trude and Moshe Dothan
The Search for the Philistines (1992)
Library of Congress # DS 90 D63

(*2) Philistines: Giving Goliath His Due by Neal Bierling
New Archaeological Light on the Philistines (1992)

(*3) The Sea Peoples and the Philistines on the Web
(Penn State Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies)


http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Ph...Philistia.html
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Asymmetric Warfare It’s not just for the “Other Guys”


Last edited by Paparock; 09-26-2011 at 08:30 PM..
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Old 09-26-2011, 11:59 PM
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Thanks Paparock, very informative article, some how we need this 'truth' of the early BC history of the land area around and including that of what we now know as Israel to be given/promoted out to the general public.

There is one abuntant fact that stands out, Jews where among the earliest ethnic groups/nation of this M.E. area, and are the only ethnic group/nation still surving from those (well over 3000 years) of continuous and ongoing occupation..

The 'Arabs' have existed only in far more recent times and have NO prove historic claims to any area of historic Jewish territory.

This is especially true to the claims of the now called "Palestinian's" who have ONLY been in self claimed existance for a couple of decades, and now claim land in the ( West Bank which was capture by Jordan in the '67' War, and Gaza which was capture by Egypt in the '67' War ).
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Old 10-14-2011, 10:56 AM
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I would love anybody to name just one event that Palestine offered peace talks. Why I ask? Because no one will not.

Palestine has been offered 3 times similar style offers and 2 state solutions and guess what? They rejected. Even Arafat rejected and then started the 2nd intifada. Palestine has made it clear that they will not recognize Israel as a Jewish state since it wants to disperse its refugee's in Israel. Palestine feels in needs the right to return to its homeland.

Israel will not make any official deals until Palestine promises not to fire any more rockets after the creation of its state. If the PLO was so worried about statehood, why don't they create a state with temporary borders? The Jews are smart and they know not to trust the world every again.
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Old 02-11-2012, 06:17 PM
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palestinians were bedouin tent dweliing nomads of the old ages. WE israelis were granted the land through our holy right and made it into a viable country with a thriving population and infrastructure and a habitable place to live.
the palestinians are sour for what they wish they had but face it, they have received their just desserts.
the world does not know who we israelis really are. all they think of is occupation of other lands which is utter nonsense.
this land was promised to us, and we have rightfully taken it back.
death to all those hypocritical, greedy, pathetic weak arabs who have done nothing to help their own cause.
at least we support and help each other in our times of need, what do the arabs do?! they fight and squabble and failt to help each other. is that what Islam ordained for them?!!!!!
if anything, it is us JEWS who have fought for the truth and what we beleive in, without lying to our souls and trying to convince each other like those mud dwelling arabs.
its easy to bargain with an arab...show them gold or money, they will sell their land for it. look at the world around us, that is what they continue to do.
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Old 08-07-2012, 09:39 PM
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fantastic thread just fantastic
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San Remo Convention

From World War I Document Archive

San Remo Convention
Extract

From: The Israel-Arab Reader, edited, Walter Laqueur, New York, Bantam Books, 1976, pps 34-42. [NB: This is an edited version of the complete San Remo Agreement, and the elipses found within form part of Dr. Laqueur's editorial process.]

"The San Remo Conference decided on April 24, 1920 to assign the Mandate [for Palestine] under the League of Nations to Britain. The terms of the Mandate were also discussed with the United States which was not a member of the League. An agreed text was confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations on July 24, 1922, and it came into operation in September 1923."


The Council of the League of Nations:


Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have agreed, for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, to entrust to a Mandatory selected by the said Powers the administration of the territory of Palestine, which formerly belonged to the Turkish Empire, within such boundaries as may be fixed by them; and


Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed that the Mandatory should be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on November 2nd, 1917, by the Government of His Britannic Majesty, and adopted by the said Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing should be done which might prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country; and


Whereas recognition has thereby been given to the historical connexion of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country;


and


Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have selected His Britannic Majesty as the Mandatory for Palestine; and


Whereas the mandate in respect of Palestine has been formulated in the following terms and submitted to the Council of the League for approval; and


Whereas His Britannic Majesty has accepted the mandate in respect of Palestine and undertaken to exercise it on behalf of the League of Nations in conformity with the following provisions; and


Whereas by the aforementioned Article 22 (paragraph 8), it is provided that the degree of authority, control or administration to be exercised by the Mandatory, not having been previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, shall be explicitly defined by the Council of the League of Nations;


Confirming the said Mandate, defines its terms as follows:


Article 1.


The Mandatory shall have full powers of legislation and of administration, save as they may be limited by the terms of this mandate.


Article 2.


The Mandatory shall be responsible for placing the country under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the development of self-governing institutions, and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion.


Article 3.


The Mandatory shall, so far as circumstances permit, encourage local autonomy.


Article 4.


An appropriate Jewish agency shall be recognized as a public body for the purpose of advising and cooperating with the Administration of Palestine in such economic, social and other matters as may affect the establishment of the Jewish national home and the interests of the Jewish population in Palestine, and, subject always to the control of the Administration, to assist and take part in the development of the country.

The Zionist Organization, so long as its organization and constitution are in the opinion of the Mandatory appropriate shall be recognized as such agency. It shall take steps in consultation with His Britannic Majesty's Government to secure the cooperation of all Jews who are willing to assist in the establishment of the Jewish national home.


Article 5.


The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that no Palestine territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way placed under the control of, the Government of any foreign Power.


Article 6.


The Administration of Palestine, while ensuring that the rights and position of other sections of the population are not prejudiced, shall facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions and shall encourage, in co-operation with the Jewish agency referred to in Article 4, close settlement by Jews on the land, including State lands and waste lands not required for public purposes.


Article 7.


The Administration of Palestine shall be responsible for enacting a nationality law. There shall be included in this law provisions framed so as to facilitate the acquisition of Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up their permanent residence in Palestine.


Article 8.


The privileges and immunities of foreigners, including the benefits of consular jurisdiction and protection as formerly enjoyed by Capitulation or usage in the Ottoman Empire, shall not be applicable in Palestine.


Unless the Powers whose nationals enjoyed the aforementioned privileges and immunities on August 1st, 1914, shall have previously renounced the right to their re-establishment, or shall have agreed to their non-application for a specified period, these privileges and immunities shall, at the expiration of the mandate, be immediately re-established in their entirety or with such modifications as may have been agreed upon between the Powers concerned.


Article 9.


The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that the judicial system established in Palestine shall assure to foreigners, as well as to natives, a complete guarantee of their rights.


Respect for the personal status of the various peoples and communities and for their religious interests shall be fully guaranteed. In particular, the control and administration of Waqfs shall be exercised in accordance with religious law and the dispositions of the founders.


Article 10.


Pending the making of special extradition agreements relating to Palestine, the extradition treaties in force between the Mandatory and other foreign Powers shall apply to Palestine.


Article 11.


The Administration of Palestine shall take all necessary measures to safeguard the interests of the community in connection with the development of the country, and, subject to any international obligations accepted by the Mandatory, shall have full power to provide for public ownership or control of any of the natural resources of the country or of the public works, services and utilities established or to be established therein. It shall introduce a land system appropriate to the needs of the country having regard, among other things, to the desirability of promoting the close settlement and intensive cultivation of the land.

The Administration may arrange with the Jewish agency mentioned in Article 4 to construct or operate, upon fair and equitable terms, any public works, services and utilities, and to develop any of the natural resources of the country, in so far as these matters are not directly undertaken by the Administration. Any such arrangements shall provide that no profits distributed by such agency, directly or indirectly, shall exceed a reasonable rate of interest on the capital, and any further profits shall be utilized by it for the benefit of the country in a manner approved by the Administration.


Article 12.


The Mandatory shall be entrusted with the control of the foreign relations of Palestine, and the right to issue exequaturs to consuls appointed by foreign Powers. He shall also be entitled to afford diplomatic and consular protection to citizens of Palestine when outside its territorial limits.


Article 13.


All responsibility in connexion with the Holy Places and religious buildings or sites in Palestine, including that of preserving existing rights and of securing free access to the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites and the free exercise of worship, while ensuring the requirements of public order and decorum, is assumed by the Mandatory, who shall be responsible solely to the League of Nations in all matters connected herewith, provided that nothing in this article shall prevent the Mandatory from entering into such arrangements as he may deem reasonable with the Administration for the purpose of carrying the provisions of this article into effect; and provided also that nothing in this Mandate shall be construed as conferring upon the Mandatory authority to interfere with the fabric or the management of purely Moslem sacred shrines, the immunities of which are guaranteed.


Article 14.


A special Commission shall be appointed by the Mandatory to study, define and determine the rights and claims in connection with the Holy Places and the rights and claims relating to the different religious communities in Palestine. The method of nomination, the composition and the functions of this Commission shall be submitted to the Council of the League for its approval, and the Commission shall not be appointed or enter upon its functions without the approval of the Council.


Article 15.


The Mandatory shall see that complete freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship, subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals are ensured to all. No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the inhabitants of Palestine on the ground of race, religion or language. No person shall be excluded from Palestine on the sole ground of his religious belief.

The right of each community to maintain its own schools for the education of its own members in its own language, while conforming to such educational requirements of a general nature as the Administration may impose, shall not be denied or impaired.


Article 16.


The Mandatory shall be responsible for exercising such supervision over religious or eleemosynary bodies of all faiths in Palestine as may be required for the maintenance of public order and good government. Subject to such supervision, no measures shall be taken in Palestine to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of such bodies or to discriminate against any representative or member of them on the ground of his religion or nationality.


Article 17.


The Administration of Palestine may organize on a voluntary basis the forces necessary for the preservation of peace and order, and also for the defence of the country, subject however, to the supervision of the Mandatory, but shall not use them for purposes other than those above specified save with the consent of the Mandatory. Except for such purposes no military, naval or air forces shall be raised or maintained by the Administration of Palestine.


Nothing in this article shall preclude the Administration of Palestine from contributing to the cost of the maintenance of the forces of the Mandatory in Palestine.


The Mandatory shall be entitled at all times to use the roads, railways and ports of Palestine for the movement of armed forces and the carriage of fuel and supplies.

Article 18.


The Mandatory shall see that there is no discrimination in Palestine against the nationals of any State Member of the League of Nations (including companies incorporated under its laws) as compared with those of the Mandatory or of any foreign State in matters concerning taxation, commerce or navigation, the exercise of industries or professions, or in the treatment of merchant vessels or civil aircraft. Similarly, there shall be no discrimination in Palestine against goods originating in or destined for any of the said States, and there shall be freedom of transit under equitable conditions across the mandated area.


Subject as aforesaid and to the other provisions of this mandate, the Administration of Palestine may, on the advice of the Mandatory, impose such taxes and customs duties as it may consider necessary, and take such steps as it may think best to promote the development of the natural resources of the country and to safeguard the interests of the population. It may also, on the advice of the Mandatory, conclude a special customs agreement with any State the territory of which in 1914 was wholly included in Asiatic Turkey or Arabia.


Article l9.


The Mandatory shall adhere on behalf of the Administration of Palestine to any general international conventions already existing, or which may be concluded hereafter with the approval of the League of Nations, respecting the slave traffic, the traffic in arms and ammunition, or the traffic in drugs, or relating to commercial equality, freedom of transit and navigation, aerial navitation and postal, telegraphic and wireless communicatiion or literary, artistic or industrial property.


Article 20.


The Mandatory shall co-operate on behalf of the Administration of Palestine, so far as religious, social and other conditions may permit, in the execution of any common policy adopted by the League of nations for preventing and combating disease, including diseases of plants and animals.


Article 21.


The Mandatory shall secure the enactment within twelve months from this date, and shall ensure the execution of a Law of Antiquities based on the following rules. This law shall ensure equality of treatment in the matter of excavations and archaeological research to the nationalals of all States Members of the League of Nations....


Article 22.


English, Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages of Palestine. Any statement or inscription in Arabic on stamps or money in Palestine shall be repeated in Hebrew and any statement or inscription in Hebrew shall be repeated in Arabic.


Article 23.


The Administration of Palestine shall recognize the holy days of the respective communities in Palestine as legal days of rest for the members of such communities.


Article 24.


The Mandatory shall make to the Council of the League of Nations an annual report to the satisfaction of the Council as to the measures taken during the year to carry out the provisions of the mandate. Copies of all laws and regulations promulgated or issued during the year shall be communicated with the report.


Article 25.


In the territories Iying between the Jordan and the eastern boundary of Palestine as ultimately determined, the Mandatory shall be entitled, with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations, to postpone or withhold application of such provisions of this mandate as he may consider inapplicable to the existing local conditions, and to make such provision for the administration of the territories as he may consider suitable to those conditions, provided that no action shall be taken which is inconsistent with the provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18.


Article 26.


The Mandatory agrees that if any dispute whatever should arise between the Mandatory and another Member of the League of Nations relating to the interpretation or the application of the provisions of the mandate, such dispute, if it cannot be settled by negotiation, shall be submitted to the Permanent Court of International Justice provided for by Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations.


Article 27.


The consent of the Council of the League of Nations is required for any modification of the terms of this mandate.


Article 28.


In the event of the termination of the mandate hereby conferred upon the Mandatory, the Council of the League of Nations shall make such arrangements as may be deemed necessary for safeguarding in perpetuity, under guarantee of the League, the rights secured by Articles 13 and 14, and shall use its influence for securing, under the guarantee of the League, that the Government of Palestine will fully honour the financial obligations legitimately incurred by the Administration of Palestine during the period of the mandate, including the rights of public servants to pensions or gratuities.


The present instrument shall be deposited in original in the archives of the League of Nations and certified copies shall be forwarded by the Secretary General of the League of Nations to all Members of the League.


DONE AT LONDON the twenty-fourth day of July, one thousand nine hundred and twenty-two."
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  #17  
Old 01-29-2013, 01:13 AM
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Arrow The History of the Words "Palestine" and "Palestinians"

The History of the Words "Palestine" and "Palestinians"

http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/meaning.html


Is Jordan Palestine? Here are two Jordanian State Stamps. On the left, one from 1949 with a picture of King Abdullah of the kingdom of Jordan and bears the label of Palestine in English and Arabic. On the right, a 1964 stamp bearing the likeness of King Hussein and pictures Mandated Palestine as an undivided territory including both present day Israel and Jordan.


WHAT DOES "PALESTINE" MEAN?

It has never been the name of a nation or state. It is a geographical term, used to designate the region at those times in history when there is no nation or state there.
The word itself derives from "Peleshet", a name that appears frequently in the Bible and has come into English as "Philistine". The Philistines were mediterranean people originating from Asia Minor and Greek localities. They reached the southern coast of Israel in several waves. One group arrived in the pre-patriarchal period and settled south of Beersheba in Gerar where they came into conflict with Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael. Another group, coming from Crete after being repulsed from an attempted invasion of Egypt by Rameses III in 1194 BCE, seized the southern coastal area, where they founded five settlements (Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gat). In the Persian and Greek periods, foreign settlers - chiefly from the Mediterranean islands - overran the Philistine districts. From the time of Herodotus, Greeks called the eastern coast of the Mediterranean "Syria Palaestina".

The Philistines were not Arabs nor even Semites, they were most closely related to the Greeks. They did not speak Arabic. They had no connection, ethnic, linguistic or historical with Arabia or Arabs. The name "Falastin" that Arabs today use for "Palestine" is not an Arabic name. It is the Arab pronunciation of the Greco-Roman "Palastina"; which is derived from the Plesheth, (root palash) was a general term meaning rolling or migratory. This referred to the Philistine's invasion and conquest of the coast from the sea.

The use of the term "Palestinian" for an Arab ethnic group is a modern political creation which has no basis in fact - and had never had any international or academic credibility before 1967.

http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/meaning.html
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Old 01-29-2013, 01:15 AM
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Arrow The Origin of the Name Palestine: Truth is Stranger than Fiction

The Origin of the Name Palestine: Truth is Stranger than Fiction
By Mark Ledbetter


http://theisraelconnection.blogspot.com/2008/09/origin-of-name-palestine-truth-is.html


Since the defeat of Israel's third rebellion against Rome in 135 AD the land of Israel has been dubbed "Palestine." It is a name that been perpetuated in both secular and biblical history. Most have assumed that then Emperor Hadrian intentionally renamed the area Palestine to had insult to injury to the Jews. Supposedly, the name Palestine is derived from Israel's ancient arch-enemy, the Philistines.

Present-day Palestinians, especially those living in Gaza, lay hold of this assumption citing ancient history gives them a right to the land, and as descendents of the Philistines they have a legal right to the land, just as Israel stakes their claim on ancient Biblical history. It is interesting to note that, however, that the Philistines as a people group ceased to exist 3000 years ago as they were assimilated by local cultures.

When Palestine Meant Israel
In his article, "When Palestine Meant Israel," (Biblical Archaeology Review, May/June 2001, Vol 27, No. 3, pp. 42-47), David Jacobson brings some interesting insight into the argument regarding the origin of the name Palestine. In the article, he admits the "phonetic similarity between Palaistine and Peleshet, the Hebrew word for the "land of the Philistines." But that is as far as the comparison goes.

He points out that in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, The Septuagint (or LXX), we find a transliteration of the Hebrew and is rendered Philistieim. So, the question that begs to be asked is, how or why did the name Palaistine (Palestine) become the common reference to the Land of Israel, or 'Eretz Yisrael? The answer is surprising and has interesting implications.

The origin goes back to the story recorded in Genesis 32:22-32 where Jacob wrestled with a "man" (or an angel). After the wrestling match, God gave Jacob a new name, Israel. In verse 25 we read, "When he saw that he had not prevailed against him, he touched the socket of his thigh; so the socket of Jacob's thigh was dislocated while he wrestled with him."

Again we read in verse 28, "He said, 'Your name shall no longer be Jacob, but Israel; for you have striven with God and with men and have prevailed."

In each verse a different word is used to indicate a struggle. In verse 25 the word "wrestle" (Hebrew, 'abaq) and is only found in connection with Jacob's wrestling with the Angel of the Lord. In verse 28, the word "striven" is from the Hebrew sarita, which comes from the root sarah, which means "content." The name Israel is from the compound sarita-el, or Yisra'el (Israel). Again, the Hebrew is found only in connection with Jacob's encounter with the angel (see Hosea 12:4). The emphasis is upon contending, or wrestling with God.

In verse 25, the Greek word used in the LXX for "wrestle" is epalaien, "he wrestled." The Greek for "wrestler" is palaistes. Comparing this with Palaistine
·Palaistes [wrestler]
·Palaistine [Palestine]

Jacobson makes the following observation: "The striking similarity between the Greek word for 'wrestler' (palaistes) and the name Palaistine – which share seven letters in a row, including a diphthong – is strong evidence of a connection between them." He continues:

Hadrian officially renamed Judea Syria Palaestina after his Roman armies suppressed the Bar-Kokhba Revolt (the Second Jewish Revolt) in 135 C.E.; this is commonly viewed as a move intended to sever the connection of the Jews to their historical homeland. However, that Jewish writers such as Philo, in particular, and Josephus, who flourished while Judea was still formally in existence, used the name Palestine for the Land of Israel in their Greek works, suggests that this interpretation of history is mistaken. Hadrian's choice of Syria Palaestina may be more correctly seen as a rationalization of the name of the new province, in accordance with its area being far larger than geographical Judea. Instead, Syria Palaestina had an ancient pedigree that was intimately linked with the area of greater Israel.

Important Implications
This conclusion suggests, therefore two important thoughts. One, this position undermines the widely circulated myth that Palestine is derived from the word Philistine. Two, Arab Palestinians are actually claiming to be heirs of Jacob and are Israelites rather than Arabs. Arab Palestinians are a myth! Further, the name Syria Palaestinia almost encompasses the entire land area that God promised to Abraham and his descendants (see Genesis 15:18-21).

Prior to 1948, the British Mandate called for two "Palestines" – Jewish Palestine and Arab Palestine.

Jewish Palestine was a tiny sliver of land while Arab Palestine included present day Jordan. Before there was an Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra, there was the Palestine Symphonic Orchestra. Similarly, before there was The Jerusalem Post, thee was a Palestine Post. Ironically, Syria objected to referring to the name Palestine because it was "too Jewish."

A Pseudo-Palestinian Movement
Who then, are the Palestinians? Initially, Palestinians were the 750,000 Arabs that left their homes in Israel as a result of the Arab invasion in 1948. The departed for three reasons: One, they were warned to flee because their Arab brothers warned them to remove themselves from harm's way when they invaded Israel; two, Arab intellectuals and businessmen left for Europe and America because they felt that the war would be disastrous if the remained; and three, Arabs remaining behind and proved hostile had their homes confiscated and were expelled from the land.

Arabs fleeing to neighboring Arab nations found themselves unwanted and found themselves as refugees. Through the years they were forced to live in squalid conditions in a hostile environment while living among their own. Meanwhile, many of the 650,000 Jews forced from their homes, livelihoods and fortunes in Arab nations found a home in the new State of Israel.

The designation "Palestinian" did not come into vogue until the 1967 Six-Day War. Three years prior to the '67 war, the Palestinian Liberation Organization was formed to liberate "Palestine," which included both Israel and Jordan. Arafat led the Jordanian "Palestinians" in a revolt against the Jordanian government. When defeated, he took his PLO to southern Lebanon (sound familiar) and moved to Israel in the 1980s.

http://theisraelconnection.blogspot.com/2008/09/origin-of-name-palestine-truth-is.html
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Old 04-15-2013, 07:04 PM
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Exclamation Palestine? Palestinian?

Palestine? Palestinian?

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The LORD bless you and keep you;
The LORD make His face to shine upon you and be gracious to you;
The LORD lift up His countenance upon you and give you peace.

Asymmetric Warfare It’s not just for the “Other Guys”

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Old 04-16-2013, 12:18 AM
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Thanks Paparock, another excellent video.

Isn't it amazing, the TRUTH will always win out.
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